Karbon og karbonlagring
Karbon (C) fins i mange ulike forbindelser og er en vesentlig del av organisk materiale. Karbon inngår også i klimagassen karbondioksid (CO2 ). Store mengder karbon utveksles mellom jord, vegetasjon og atmosfære hele tida og hvordan maten produseres påvirker hvor mye karbon som lagres i jorden. Fotosyntesen i plantene omdanner CO2 i lufta til plantemateriale. CO2 dannes blant annet gjennom dyrs og planters ånding, nedbryting av organisk materiale og forbrenning av fossilt brensel.
Dette er Kores temaside for forskning på karbon og karbonlagring. Her har vi samlet både norsk og internasjonal forskning på karbon og lagring av karbon i jord.
Grasslands are one of the most important ecosystems and forms of land use in the world. They are crucial for food production and deliver ecosystem services. However, particularly when used for livestock production, they are also a significant source of pollution including the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Energy inputs into grassland agriculture, particularly fertilisers, also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. A considerable amount of research has focused on emissions from grasslands: how to measure them and management strategies for mitigation. Similarly, there have been a number of studies on the role of grasslands in terms of carbon sequestration. However, less work has been carried out exploring ways in which genetic improvement of grassland crops can reduce emissions and enhance carbon sequestration. Plant breeding has been successful at increasing the yield, persistency and stress tolerance of the major grasses and legumes of many grasslands in the world. These same approaches have considerable potential in altering plant traits to enhance the ecological efficiency of grassland agriculture.
The SWSR will constitute the reference document on the status of global soil resources with a strong regional assessment on soil change. The information is based on peer-reviewed scientific literature, complemented with expert knowledge and reliable project outputs (mainly FAO ones). It provides a description and a ranking of ten major soil threats that endanger ecosystem functions, goods and services globally and in each region separately. Additionally, it describes direct and indirect pressure son soils and ways and means to combat soil degradation at all levels.
Jordbruksarealene er viktige med tanke på lagring av karbon. Kombinasjon av jordtype og arealbruk er avgjørende for hvor mye karbon som kan lagres. For å ivareta karbon i jordbruksjord er det nødvending at rett tiltak skjer på rett sted.
By converting organic matter into biochar, which has a high stability, carbon can remain fixed in soils for several centuries. Carbon sequestration via pyrolysis and deposition of biochar in soil has evolved over the last decade. Biochar is produced by heating organic material under oxygen-free conditions together with bio-oil and gas that can be used for energy purposes. A significant amount of research has recently contributed to an increased understanding of biochar effects on carbon sequestration, greenhouse gas emissions and agronomy.
However, more research is needed on biochar effects on plant and grain yields, the influence of production technologies on biochar quality and its effect on soil fertility, pyrolysis bio-oil quality and cost reductions. Implementation will further require a combination of substantial innovation, private and public investment, systems of incentives and integration in existing agricultural practices and governance systems.
The main objective of CAPTURE+ is to develop biochar systems as a tool for achieving a zero emission society by applying an interdisciplinary approach for development, assessment and implementation in agriculture and forestry.
This is achieved by improving technical, economical, political and social factors that currently limit biochar implementation in agriculture and forestry, using biotechnology and nanotechnology to improve the production process, developing scenarios for sustainable biochar systems, establishing a demonstrator platform, ensuring biochar quality, engaging stakeholders in implementation paths, and increasing awareness of its potential. The novelty lies in the integration of enabling nano- and biotechnologies to improve the process and ensure enhanced value of end products that may permit large scale adoption. The integration of economic, societal and political analysis, including stakeholder involvement in technology development and implementation is also novel.