The intended future bioeconomy requires increased utilisation of available bioresources. As part of this, optimal utilisation of nutrients in waste resources as fertiliser in agriculture will be indispensable. However, waste resources are complex materials that are strongly varying in terms of composition, quantity and quality. Therefore, several barriers will have to be overcome to realise efficient nutrient cycling. For example, large amounts of water in many waste resources can result in difficulties related to handling and application as fertiliser, and that transport is costly over large distances. Further, unknown quality of waste resources as fertiliser is often hindering efficient and environmentally friendly use. Waste resources can contain environmental pollutants and pathogenic microorganisms. Especially microplastics have lately received gained focus. Also, acceptance of waste resources as fertiliser by farmers is unknown, and nutrient recycling can lead to environmental problem shifting.