Kategori: Næringsstoffer

Næringsstoffer
Bonden må vite hvilke næringsstoffer som finnes i jorden, hvor mye som er tilgjengelig for plantene og hva hun gir til dyrene. Visstnok blir vi hva vi spiser, og da er det jo høyst aktuelt å vite hva maten inneholder og hvordan den påvirker oss. Om en plante eller en kropp ikke får de næringsstoffene den trenger så kan det gå utover biologiske funksjoner. Kvaliteten på jorden påvirker kvaliteten på maten.

Dette er Kores temaside for forskning på næringsstoffer. Her har vi samlet både norsk og internasjonal forskning, og gruppert forskningen i ulike temaer som er viktige for dem som forsker på næringsstoffer i jord, mat og kropp.

 

 

Forbs differentially affect soil microbial community composition and functions in unfertilized ryegrass-red clover leys

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Matjord, Næringsstoffer

Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems is proposed to enhance multiple ecosystem services. Adding selected forbs such as caraway (Carum carvi L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) to productive grass-clover mixtures can further enhance forage yields, root biomass, uptake of mineral nutrients and improve animal performance. Yet, it remains unclear whether and how adding these forbs to grass-clover mixtures can influence soil microbial communities and associated soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling.

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Red clover for silage: management impacts on herbage yield, nutritive value, ensilability and persistence, and relativity to perennial ryegrass

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

This 6‐year experiment quantified the impacts of management factors on red clover yield, persistence, nutritive value and ensilability, and compared these with perennial ryegrass receiving inorganic N fertilizer. Within a randomized complete block design, field plots were used to evaluate a 2 (cultivar, Merviot and Ruttinova) × 2 (alone and with perennial ryegrass) × 2 (0 and 50 kg fertilizer N ha−1 in mid‐March) × 2 (harvest schedule) combination of the factors relating to red clover, and a 2 (harvest schedule) × 4 (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 for each cut) combination of the factors relating to perennial ryegrass.

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Phosphorus bioavailability of sewage sludge-based recycled fertilizers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

Six phosphorus (P) fertilizers recycled from sewage sludge [Struvite SSL, Struvite AirPrex,P-RoC, Mephrec, Pyrolysis coal and Ash (Mg-SSA)] were tested for their plant availability in potted soil of pH 7.2 under greenhouse conditions. The crop sequence simulated a rotation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), maize (Zea maize L.), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

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Waste products as alternative phosphorus fertilisers part I: inorganic P species affect fertilisation effects depending on soil pH

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

One of the bottlenecks to efficient phosphorus (P) recycling is limited understanding of the relationships between inorganic P species in waste products and their P fertilisation effects. In this study, we characterised inorganic P species in seven waste products (two biomass ashes, meat bone meal, fish sludge, catering waste and two food waste-based digestate products) and two manure products (dairy and chicken manure) by: (1) Sequential chemical fractionation, (2) X-ray powder diffraction and (3) solid-state 31P MAS-NMR spectroscopy.

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Vermi – biochar as alternative to peat as growing substrate for greenhouse vegetables

Biochar is a novel soil amendment technique with a potential of sequestering atmospheric carbon into soil with an increase in certain soil quality parameters essential for crop production. Intense use of peat as growing media, especially in horticulture, has led to a huge exploitation of stable carbon from wetland mosses into the atmosphere accelerating climate change.

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Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster this systemic shift.

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Evaluating lifetime nitrogen use efficiency of dairy cattle: A modelling approach

The increased nitrogen (N) use efficiency in cattle farming is proposed as a key action to improve N management and reduce the environmental impact of cattle farming systems. Most attention has been given to lactating cow nutrition, excluding the elements of fertility, disease, and the non-lactating animals within the herd. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a herd-level simulation model incorporating these elements to assess dairy farm N use efficiency.

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Can living mulches in intercropping systems reduce the potential nitrate leaching? Studies of organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and leek (Allium porrum L.) production across European conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matplanter, Næringsstoffer, Produksjonsmetoder

The effect of introduction strategy for living mulches (LMs) to reduce the potential nitrate leaching was investigated when grown with vegetables with high nitrogen (N) demand and low use efficiency in four European countries: Italy, Slovenia, Germany and Denmark over 2 yr. The plant N uptake and soil nitrate N content at harvest, in the autumn, and in the following spring were measured below open-pollinated and hybrid cultivars of cauliflower and leek crops.

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Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Organic farming systems need to replace nutrients exported via farm products, especially phosphorus (P) which may otherwise become depleted in soil in the long term. In Europe, EU regulations for organic production are shaping the farming systems with respect to inputs of nutrients. Permitted off-farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal.

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Phosphorus availability on many organically managed farms in Europe

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Maintaining sufficient soil phosphorus (P) levels for non-limiting crop growth is challenging in organic systems since off-farm inputs of P are restricted. This study assessed the status of P on organic farms in Europe using soil test results for extractable P. Data was obtained from published literature, unpublished theses, and various national and regional databases of soil test values.

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Resilience of bacteria, archaea, fungi and N-cycling microbial guilds under plough and conservation tillage, to agricultural drought

Climate change causes droughts, which in turn cause significant physiological stress for soil microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how the abundance of total bacterial, crenarchaeal and fungal communities and the abundance of N-cycling microbial guilds responded to a severe agricultural drought event in a long-term experiment of minimum tillage (MT) and conventional ploughing (CT) at two soil depths.

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Targeting critical source areas for phosphorus losses: Evaluation with soil testing, farmers’ assessment and modelling

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Klima og miljø, Næringsstoffer

Diffuse phosphorus (P) losses from arable land need to be reduced in a cost-efficient way, taking into account their temporal and spatial variability. This study, based on 16 farms across southern Sweden, examined possibilities for identifying critical source areas for P losses based on the combined results of high-resolution erosion modelling, independent risk assessments by farmers, soil survey and SWOT analysis performed by farmers.

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Begränsningar och möjligheter för skogsträdgårdsodling i svenskt klimat

Intensifieringen av jordbruket har lett till förluster av biologisk mångfald, degradering av mark och vatten samt stora utsläpp av växthusgaser. Det är av stor vikt att vi hittar tekniker för framtidens jordbruk som istället har en positiv inverkan på miljön. Målet med detta forskningsprojekt är att undersöka om agroforestrytekniken skogsträdgårdsodling, som bygger på en hög diversitet av perenna växter och låg skötselintensitet, kan vara ett exempel på sådana system.

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The challenge of imbalanced nutrient flows in organic farming systems: A study of organic greenhouses in Southern Germany

Organic greenhouse vegetable production is characterized by very high nutrient demands within short growing periods and high nutrient exports via products sold. Therefore, meeting crop nutrient demands and maintaining long-term sustainability in these systems is highly challenging. To gain insight in current practices this study assessed fertilization strategies and nutrient flows of ten organic horticultural farms (22 greenhouses and polytunnels) in Southwest Germany belonging to the two organic farming associations Bioland and Demeter (biodynamic) for a cropping period of three years.

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Effect of biodynamic preparations on the phenolic antioxidants in potatoes with coloured-flesh

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Grønnsaker, Matplanter, Næringsstoffer, Potet

The aim of this research, which was undertaken in two years (2013–2014), was to evaluate the effect of cultivars and biodynamic (BD) preparations 500 and 501 on concentrations of phenolic compounds, quantitative and qualitative anthocyanins and phenolic acids compositions, and antioxidant activity in the tubers of coloured potatoes.

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The Political Ecology of Pee and Poo – Peak Phosphorus and the Metabolic Rift in Discursive Struggles

This thesis investigates how the metabolic rift and peak phosphorus are represented in Norwegian media and policy documents. The investigation is done with the use of critical discourse analysis. The material investigated consists of 28 texts from Norwegian newspapers and two documents from the Norwegian Environment Agency.

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SolACE – Solutions for improving Agroecosystem and Crop Efficiency for water and nutrient use

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Fosfor, Gjødsel, Matjord, Næringsstoffer, Vann

The goal of SolACE - Solutions for improving Agroecosystem and Crop Efficiency for water and nutrient use - is to help European agriculture face major challenges, notably increased rainfall variability and reduced use of N and P fertilizers for both economic and ecological purposes. SolACE will design solutions (strategies and tools) that combine novel crop genotypes and agroecosystem management innovations to improve water and nutrient use efficiency. It will look at a range of agricultural contexts across pedo-climatic regions and farming systems of Europe.

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PRINCIPLES FOR HIGH FUNCTIONING SOILS

Soil health is the continued capacity of a soil to function as a vital, living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals, and humans. Only living things can have “health,” so viewing soil as a living, breathing ecosystem reflects a shift in the way we view and manage our nation’s soils. Soil isn’t an inert growing medium, but rather is the home of billions of bacteria, fungi, and other organisms that together create an intricate symbiotic ecosystem. This ecosystem can be managed to support plants and animals, by cycling nutrients, absorbing, draining and retaining rainwater and snowmelt for use during dry periods, filtering and buffering water to remove potential pollutants, and providing habitat for the soil biological population to flourish and diversify to keep the ecosystem functioning well.

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Jordsmonnstatistikk Norge

This report presents soil statistics for agricultural land in Norway. Soil data from the soil survey form the basis of the statistics. The survey is done as a sample survey on 0.9 km2 plots, in a predefined 9x9 km2 grid system. Hence, the statistics for Norway is an estimate. The area distribution of a number of topics is presented (both in decares (1 decare = 0,1 hectare) and percent). Soil properties vary between different regions in Norway, mostly due to a big variety between the soil forming factors. This variation must be taken into account in the management of the soil resource, for the soil to maintain the functions for producing food in a sustainable way.

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Nutrients in a Circular Bioeconomy: Barriers and Opportunities for Mineral Phosphorus Independence in Norway

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Matjord, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

Tidligere forskning har vist at mengden P i biprodukter fra det norske landbruket (hovedsakelig husdyrgjødsel) og havbruksnæringen (hovedsakelig fiskeavfall) er over fire ganger så stort som det årlige behovet for P i gjødsel. Det er også beregnet at produksjonsoverskuddet av slike biprodukter kan øke til å bli 12 ganger behovet innen 2050. Likevel er Norge i dag avhengig av store mengder importert mineralsk fosfor, i økende grad fra Marokko, samtidig som ubrukt P akkumuleres i jordsmonn og akvatiske systemer.

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Använd fånggrödor som mellangrödor för ökad produktivitet och minskade förluster av N och P

Hög växtnäringseffektivitet är viktigt för god konkurrenskraft i växtodlingen. I detta projekt undersöks mellangrödor för skörd och rötning, för att öka produktiviteten och kväveeffektiveten och samtidigt minimera miljöbelastningen. Tidigt skördade grödor t.ex. konservärter eller färskpotatis följs ofta av ett stort läckage, som kan bromsas av en mellangröda. En mellangröda kan växa bra vid tidig sådd, men det finns en risk att kväve som tagits upp ändå förloras genom läckage och gasformiga förluster under vintern, där lustgas är en särskilt potent växthusgas. I stället för att nedbruka mellangrödan, undersöker vi här ett system där gödslade mellangrödor skördas till biogas, och där växtnäringen återförs genom rötresten till en ny huvudgröda våren därpå. Hypotesen är att detta system ger mindre växtnäringsförluster än system med nedmyllning av mellangrödor. Försöken genomförs på försöksfält med uppsamling av dräneringsvatten och kombineras med lustgasmätning samt utvärderas ekonomiskt.

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Långsiktig fosforförsörjning från mark – utvärdering av P-AL och betydelsen av stabila fosforformer

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Grønnsaker, Klima og miljø, Matjord, Matplanter

I Sverige baseras dagens gödslingsrekommendationer på det sk P-AL-talet, detta avses ge den mängd fosfor (P) som är potentiellt växttillgänglig i ett korttidsperspektiv. Dock finns brister med denna metod, bl.a. tar man ingen hänsyn till de 'stabila' formerna av fosfor vilka kan vara betydelsefulla över lång sikt både för att binda upp och för att frigöra fosfor.

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Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

The 13th edition of the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture includes 14 articles of EUROLEGUME's scientific research in its 'In Focus' section.
In addition to the 14 articles, the 'In Focus' starts off with an editorial on 'Enhancing legume growing through sustainable cropping for protein supply' and a review on 'Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment'.

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Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment

The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop.

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Redistributing Phosphorus in Animal Manure from a Livestock-Intensive Region to an Arable Region: Exploration of Environmental Consequences

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Erosjon, Fosfor, Gjødsel, Klima og miljø, Matjord, Samfunnsutvikling

Specialized agricultural production between regions has led to large regional differences in soil phosphorus (P) over time. Redistribution of surplus manure P from high livestock density regions to regions with arable farming can improve agricultural P use efficiency. In this paper, the central research question was whether more efficient P use through manure P redistribution comes at a price of increased environmental impacts when compared to a reference system.

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Preventing and remediating degradation of soils in Europe through Land Care

Soils in the European Union are an essential yet often undervalued and degraded resource. Soils deliver numerous important functions and ecosystem services, including, for example, water and nutrient cycling, biomass and food production, or habitats for species. At the same time, soils are affected by a range of degradation processes, in particular: erosion, floods and landslides, loss of soil organic matter, salinisation, contamination, compaction, sealing, and loss of soil biodiversity (COM 2006).

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Underlag för nya kaliumrekommendationer till svensk potatisproduktion

| Type artikkel:
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Kategori: Gjødsel, Grønnsaker, Kalium, Matjord, Matplanter, Potet, Produksjonsmetoder

The aim of this research proposal is to support well-founded potassium recommendations for Swedish table potatoes. The main issue today is that the recommendations are based on a few old experiments which were carried out with old management practices. There is a general practice among Swedish farmers to supplying more K than the potato plant needs for optimal growth in order to avoid quality issues.

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Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review

Humans are currently confronted by many global challenges. These include achieving food security for a rapidly expanding population, lowering the risk of climate change by reducing the net release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere due to human activity, and meeting the increasing demand for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. Legumes deliver several important services to societies. They provide important sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen (N) to agro-ecosystems via their unique ability to fix atmospheric N2 in symbiosis with the soil bacteria rhizobia, increasing soil carbon content, and stimulating the productivity of the crops that follow. However, the role of legumes has rarely been considered in the context of their potential to contribute to the mitigation of climate change by reducing fossil fuel use or by providing feedstock for the emerging biobased economies where fossil sources of energy and industrial raw materials are replaced in part by sustainable and renewable biomass resources.

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Fosforkretsløp i Montreals mat- og urbant landbrukssystem

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Matjord, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder, Urbant landbruk

Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities’ P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste.

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Mineralisering av karbon og nitrogen etter pløing av eng 2002-2006

<div>Pløying av eng kan skape ekstreme situasjonar med omsyn på utvasking av N og problem knytt til vurdering av næringsforsyning. I økologisk drift er god utnytting av tilgjengelege N-ressursar særleg viktig fordi N oftast er avgrensande for plantevekst og fordi miljøaspektet er vektlagt. <span style="line-height: 1.5em;">Prosjektet skal klarlegge potensialet for mineralisering av C og N etter pløying av eng med ulik alder og innhald av kløver.</span></div>

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Ulike arter dekkvekster : vekst og nitrogen, bladenes egenskaper og økologiske strategier

<span style="line-height: 1.5em;">Vi brukte bladenes funksjonelle egenskaper for å karakterisere vekst hos 36 dekkvekster som en tilnærming til å forstå vekstenes evne til å vokse og tilegne seg nitrogen hurtig. Vi målte spesifikke områder på bladene, tørrstoffinnhold, nitrogeninnhold.</span>

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Karbonlagring i jordaggregater under forskjellige vekstskifter og nitrogengjødsling i en inceptisol (brunjord) i det sørøstlige Norge

Effekter av vekstskifte og gjødsling (nitrogen og husdyrgjødsel) på konsentrasjoner av organisk karbon og total jordnitrogen i jordaggregater ble undersøkt i et langvarig felteksperiment etablert i 1953 på Ås, Norge . Effekten av disse dyrkingssystemene på karbonbinding av organisk karbon ble estimert.

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Effekter av nitrogentilførsel på karbonbalansen i jord – studie fra Midtvesten, USA

Vi har evaluert virkningene på to store prosesser som bestemmer karbonbalansen i jord og nivåene for organisk karbontilførsel på fire nivåer av nitrogengjødsling, 0, 90, 180, og 270 kg/ha, i to langtidseksperimentområder i Mollisols i Iowa, USA.

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Økologisk versus konvensjonell grovfôrproduksjon: Nitrogen- og karbonprøver fra grovfôr og jord

Å skille økologiske og konvensjonelle produkter fra hverandre er en stor problemstilling innen matsikkerhet og matautentisitet. Tidligere studier har bruket stabile isotoper for å skille økologiske og konvensjonelle produkter, men frem til nå, har ikke denne tilnærmingen blitt testet på økologisk grovfôr og jord.

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