M. Waqas, A.S. Nizami, A.S. Aburiazaiza, M.A. Barakat, I.M.I. Ismail og M.I.Rashid
The quality of compost was assessed against stabilization indices such as moisture contents (MC), electrical conductivity (EC), organic matters (OM) degradation, change in total carbon (TC) and mineral nitrogen contents such as ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3−). The use of biochar significantly improved the composting process and physiochemical properties of the final compost. Results showed that in comparison to control trial, biochar amended compost mixtures rapidly achieved the thermophilic temperature, increased the OM degradation by 14.4–15.3%, concentration of NH4+ by 37.8–45.6% and NO3− by 50–62%. The most prominent effects in term of achieving rapid thermophilic temperature and a higher concentration of NH4+ and NO3− were observed at 15% (w/w) biochar. According to compost quality standard of United States (US), California, Germany, and Austria, the compost stability as a result of biochar addition was achieved in 50–60 days. Nonetheless, the biochar produced at 450 °C had similar effects as to biochar produced at 350 °C for most of the compost parameters. Therefore, it is recommended to produce biochar at 350 °C to reduce the energy requirements for resource recovery of biomass and should be added at a concentration of 15% (w/w) to the compost bioreactor for achieving a stable compost.