Stikkord: folkehelse

Sustainable and healthy diets: Trade-offs and synergies. Final scientific report

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

This project aimed at analysing trade-offs and synergies between healthy nutrition and sustainable food systems. First, we identified nutritional patters of the Swiss population based on representative consumption data. The health impacts of these nutritional patterns were then analysed based on a review of the scientific literature on health impacts of food commodities and diets and by calculating the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) of the nutritional patterns.

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Making occupational health and safety training relevant for farmers: Evaluation of an introductory course in occupational health and safety in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse

Agriculture is a hazardous industry, with a high frequency of injuries. As agriculture is an industry mostly consisting of small enterprises, it may be difficult to prevent injuries. In Norway, an OHS course is available for farmers. This study aims to evaluate this course. The evaluation is a prospective exploratory case study evaluation using qualitative interviews.

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Biochar reduces volatile organic compounds generated during chicken manure composting

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biokull

The efficiency of biochar for reducing the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was investigated in a composting mixture containing 90% poultry manure and 10% straw (with and without 3% biochar addition) at three different stages of the process. The use of a low application rate of biochar reduced the concentration of VOC during the thermophilic phase.

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Meat Reduction by Force: The Case of “Meatless Monday” in the Norwegian Armed Forces

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Kjøtt

Despite the scientific evidence that more plants and less animal-based food is more sustainable, policy interventions to reduce meat consumption are scarce. However, campaigns for meat free days in school and office canteens have spread globally over the last years. In this paper, we look at the Norwegian Armed Forces’ attempt to introduce the Meatless Monday campaign in their camps, and we evaluate the implementation process as well as the effect of the campaign on soldiers.

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The effect of soil on human health: an overview

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Matjord

Soil has a considerable effect on human health, whether those effects are positive or negative, direct or indirect. Soil is an important source of nutrients in our food supply and medicines such as antibiotics. However, nutrient imbalances and the presence of human pathogens in the soil biological community can cause negative effects on health.

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Agri-active neighbourhood : an exploration of neighbourhood cultivation through urban agriculture and development strategies

| Type artikkel: Månedens masterMasteravhandling

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Urbant landbruk

Historically food has been just as important to our cities as it has been for sustaining our individual bodies. In fact, one of the most important factors that contributed to forming early human civilization was agriculture. The domestication of plants and animals allowed our ancestors to settle in one area for a longer period of time and gradually, those static settlements became more permanent and evolved into cities, as we know them.

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FUTURE NORDIC DIETS

The global food system causes large emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the environment. Livestock are responsible for a large part of these emissions and take up most of the agricultural land for grazing and feed production while only making a more limited contribution to the global food supply. In this project, we have used an agricultural mass flow model to assess two future food system scenarios for the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (hereafter “the Nordic countries”).

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Sustenance and sustainability: maximizing the impact of school gardens on health outcomes

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Grønnsaker, Skolehager

Objective
School garden programmes have become popular action-oriented learning environments in many countries, often driven by converging priorities of environmental sustainability and healthful diets. Many of these programmes have assessed the impact on dietary intake, specifically fruit and vegetable intake, and related dietary behaviours, such as knowledge, preference, motivation, intention and self-efficacy to eat and prepare fruit and vegetables. The objective of the present study was twofold: (i) to review published garden-based programmes conducted in schools targeting dietary intake and/or determinants of dietary behaviour in children; and (ii) to identify similar strategies and components employed by these garden-based programmes.


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Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Planteproteiner

Importance
Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome.

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Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

What we eat greatly influences our personal health and the environment we all share. Recent analyses have highlighted the likely dual health and environmental benefits of reducing the fraction of animal-sourced foods in our diets. Here, we couple for the first time, to our knowledge, a region-specific global health model based on dietary and weight-related risk factors with emissions accounting and economic valuation modules to quantify the linked health and environmental consequences of dietary changes.

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Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT– Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems

Food systems have the potential to nurture human health and support environmental sustainability; however, they are currently threatening both. Providing a growing global population with healthy diets from sustainable food systems is an immediate challenge. Although global food production of calories has kept pace with population growth, more than 820 million people have insufficient food and many more consume low-quality diets that cause micronutrient deficiencies and contribute to a substantial rise in the incidence of diet-related obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

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Association of Frequency of Organic Food Consumption With Cancer RiskFindings From the NutriNet-Santé Prospective Cohort Study

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Økologisk landbruk

Importance
Although organic foods are less likely to contain pesticide residues than conventional foods, few studies have examined the association of organic food consumption with cancer risk.

Objective
To prospectively investigate the association between organic food consumption and the risk of cancer in a large cohort of French adults.


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When too much isn’t enough: Does current food production meet global nutritional needs?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Sustainably feeding the next generation is often described as one of the most pressing “grand challenges” facing the 21st century. Generally, scholars propose addressing this problem by increasing agricultural production, investing in technology to boost yields, changing diets, or reducing food waste. In this paper, we explore whether global food production is nutritionally balanced by comparing the diet that nutritionists recommend versus global agricultural production statistics.

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The hidden cost of UK food

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økonomi

This report finds that the food we eat costs us about twice as much as it appears in our shopping bills. For every £1 UK consumers spend on food, additional costs of around £1 are incurred. These costs are not paid by the food businesses, nor are they included within the retail price of food. Instead they are passed on to society in a range of hidden ways. In total, production-related costs account for an extra 50p for every £1 spent on food, while the costs of diet-related disease account for an
extra 37p. One surprising conclusion is that farm support payments account for only 2.5p in every hidden £1 spent on food.

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Overvåkingsresultater for plantevernmidler i næringsmidler 2017

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Bær, Folkehelse, Frukt, Grønnsaker, Gulrot, Matplanter, Plantevern og plantehelse

Mattilsynet utfører årlig offentlig kontroll av plantevernmiddelrester i næringsmidler. Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra dette overvåkingsprogrammet for prøver tatt ut i 2017. Hensikten med overvåkingsprogrammet er hovedsakelig å overvåke nivået for rester av plantevernmidler for å sikre at forbruker ikke utsettes for plantevernmiddelrester som kan være helsefarlig. Videre skal overvåkingen bidra til å sikre at næringsmiddelvirksomhetene etterlever regelverket slik at plantevernmiddelrestene ikke overskrider gjeldende grenseverdi.

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Citizen and consumer evaluation of organic food and farming in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Folkehelse

In this paper, we examine citizen and consumer attitudes towards, and preferences for, private and public goods from organic agriculture in Norway. The study is based on a survey among 939 Norwegians. The results show that in the role as citizens, the respondents hold a moderate belief in the superiority of organic farming concerning the production of public goods, but they give relatively low priority to prompting organic farming compared to other agricultural policy goals.

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The quality of leguminous vegetables as influenced by preharvest factors

The cultivation of most legumes, aims to the production of either dry seeds consumed by humans, also known as pulses, or animal fodder. However, some legumes are cultivated for fresh consumption either as pods or as immature seeds. The economically most important legumes consumed as vegetables are green pods of common bean, cowpea, faba bean, snow pea (mangetout) and green pea seeds. As a rule, the legume vegetables are consumed after cooking and in many countries, they may be used to cover primary nutritional needs, because their protein content is high in comparison with most other vegetables.

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The SUSDIET Research Project: Towards Sustainable Diets in Europe – final report

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Food consumption patterns observed in developed countries raise two main types of concerns related to environmental and public health dimensions.
Regarding the environmental dimension, it is widely recognized that the food sector contributes significantly to climate change through high greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions: from 15 to 30% of total GHGEs are induced by food production, distribution and consumption (Esnouf et al., 2013; Tukker et al., 2009).

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Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Økologisk landbruk

This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed from organic or conventional production impacts in different ways on growth and development.

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Prospective association between consumption frequency of organic food and body weight change, risk of overweight or obesity: results from the NutriNet-Santé Study

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse

A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age = 45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data.

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Økologisk mat på sykehjem – med hvilken hensikt og til hvilken nytte?

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Folkehelse

Økologisk mat og landbruk er et stadig tilbakevendende tema i debatter om helse og miljø. Forbruker interessen er økende og i henhold til Soria Moria erklæringen er det nasjonale målet at 15 prosent av matproduksjonen og matforbruket skal være økologisk i 2020. For å imøtekomme dette målet blir økt forbruk av økologiske
produkter i offentlige storhusholdninger trukket frem som en viktig strategi. Et parallelt prosjekt underordnet det nasjonale målet har vært ”økoløft i kommuner”. Sykehjemmet som jeg i denne studien har undersøkt ligger i økokommunen Tingvoll i Møre og Romsdal. Som et resultat av dette valgte sykehjemmets kjøkken å legge om til økologisk mat.

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Alunskiferjord – Overføring av tungmetaller og radionuklider til mat

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Folkehelse, Matjord

Alunskiferjord inneholder større mengder potensielt helseskadelige sporstoffer enn annen jord (halvmetaller som arsen, tungmetaller som kadmium og radionuklider som radium). Disse tas opp i planter i varierende grad. Hvor mye som tas opp er avhengig av sporstoffenes iboende egenskaper, av ulike planters evne til å ta opp disse, og av dyrkingspraksis. Det er for eksempel godt kjent at kalking kan redusere opptak av de fleste tungmetaller. Likeledes kan ulike gjødseltyper påvirke opptaket ved at de har ulik evne til å forsure rotsonen eller gjøre denne mer alkalisk.

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Report from ORGANICS for tomorrow´s food systems – NJF Seminar 495 4th Organic Conference

Organic agriculture has been recognized as a driver towards more sustainable agricultural practises and food systems. However, there is a need for progress to meet tomorrow´s agricultural, environmental and societal challenges, to be vital for public health and wellbeing and to have a major impact on global food systems. Research plays a fundamental role for the next step.

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SunnMat

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Folkehelse, Korn, Matplanter

Bærekraftig utnyttelse av norske mat råvarer med fokus på helsefortrinn og generell kvalitet. Målet med dette strategiske forskningsprogrammet er å bidra til økt innovasjon og bærekraftig utvikling i norsk matindustri gjennom optimal utnyttelse av råvarer med fokus på helsefortrinn, generell kvalitet og nye anvendelser.

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Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing.

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Små dytt for bedre helse

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Folkehelse

Usunt kosthold er rangert som den bakenforliggende faktoren som tar flest liv i Norge. Prosjektet «Små dytt for bedre helse» er trolig det første systematiske forsøket med "nudging" for sunnere kosthold i en klinisk setting i Norge.

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Antibiotikaresistens i norsk fjørfeproduksjon: økt kunnskap via avanserte screening plattformer

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Fjørfe, Folkehelse, Husdyr

There is a need for increased knowledge on occurrence and mechanisms for antibiotic resistance in Norwegian poultry production, where E. coli resistant to certain antibiotics are frequently found. Specifically, understanding the connection between antibiotic resistance in poultry and human consumption is essential. At present,central questions regarding risks, mechanisms, development, maintenance and spread of antibiotic resistance are largely unsolved.

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Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, GMO, Husdyr, Matjord, Matplanter

Assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this book, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them.

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A decade of EU-funded GMO research (2001-2010)

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, GMO, Husdyr, Matjord, Matplanter, Samfunnsutvikling

This publication reviews the last ten years of research projects launched under the Framework Programmes for research, technological development and demonstration activities, focusing on safety aspects of GMOs but also taking account of developments in the field over time. More than EUR 200 million has been invested through the Framework Programmes since the year 2001, developing agricultural management techniques for co-existence, tools for detection in and analysis of food and feed, and methods for risk assessment of GMOs, thus responding to the need of farmers, consumers, industry and policymakers.

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Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, GMO, Matplanter

Genetically engineered (GE) crops were first introduced commercially in the 1990s. After two decades of production, some groups and individuals remain critical of the technology based on their concerns about possible adverse effects on human health, the environment, and ethical considerations. At the same time, others are concerned that the technology is not reaching its potential to improve human health and the environment because of stringent regulations and reduced public funding to develop products offering more benefits to society. While the debate about these and other questions related to the genetic engineering techniques of the first 20 years goes on, emerging genetic-engineering technologies are adding new complexities to the conversation.

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Litteraturstudie av miljöpåverkan från konventionellt och ekologiskt producerade livsmedel

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, Husdyr, Matjord, Matplanter, Samfunnsutvikling, Økologisk landbruk

Den här rapporten samman- ställer skillnaderna i miljöpåverkan mellan ekologiskt och konventionellt producerade livsmedel och är ett kunskapsunderlag som Livsmedelsverket kan använda för att belysa frågan om det finns några livsmedelsgrupper där ekologiskt alternativt konventionellt bör lyftas fram. Arbetet har fokuserat på ett antal större livsmedelsgrupper och prioriterat studier som har använt livscykelanalys, LCA.

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Økologisk mat – skoleprosjekter fra «jord til bord». Oppsummering av prosesser og aktiviteter

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Folkehelse, Samfunnsutvikling, Skolehager, Urbant landbruk, Økologisk landbruk

Prosjektets mål har vært å øke bevisstheten om og forbruket av økologisk mat i Midt-Telemark. Dette skulle gjøres gjennom å opprette og videre-utvikle samarbeid mellom skoler og lokale gårdbrukere, fortrinnsvis med økologisk drift. Telemarksforsking sin rolle har vært å være initiativtaker, idéformidler og pådriver for mer samarbeid mellom skoler og gårdbrukere. Landbrukskontoret i Midt-Telemark, Midt-Telemark Næringsutvikling og Økoløft Sauherad har også vært involverte i prosjektet.

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Skolehagen som en arena for å lære om mat, kosthold og bærekraftighet? En kvalitativ studie av foreldrenes erfaring og oppfatning av skolehagen.

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Folkehelse, Samfunnsutvikling, Skolehager, Urbant landbruk

I en tid der miljø og klimaendringer er en realitet kan skolehagen være et sted der både barn og voksne kan delta i et meningsfullt arbeid som kan engasjere til en helhetlig tankegang om hvordan valg av mat både bidrar til å fremme helsen og en bærekraftig utvikling. Skolehagebaserte nutrition education -intervensjoner er en strategi for å øke frukt- og grøntinntaket hos barn og unge, og det er lite forskning på om skolehage også påvirker foreldrene.

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Postprandiale effekter av eksisterende og nye innovative meieriprodukter

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Husdyr, Melk

Livsstilssykdommer som metabolsk syndrom, hjerte- og karsykdom, diabetes type 2, overvekt/fedme og kreft påfører samfunnet betydelige kostnader via helsebudsjettet og kan forebygges v.hj.a kostholdet. Myndighetene har fokus på tiltak for å forebygge disse sykdomstilstandene gjennom sin Handlingsplan for bedre kosthold i befolkningen (2007-2011). Her blir matvareindustrien oppfordret til å utvikle matvarer med god ernæringsmessig profil tilpasset ulike bruksområder, arenaer og målgrupper.

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Faktaark om melk og helse

| Type artikkel:
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Kategori: Folkehelse, Husdyr, Melk

Et kosthold med mye melkefett kan øke kolesterolinnholdet i blodet. I de senere årene har en imidlertid begynt å fokusere mindre på totalkolesterolverdiene, men heller se på forholdet mellom det ”farlige ” og det ”gode” kolesterol- eller altså forholdet mellom lipoproteinene LDL- og HDL.

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