Tema: Kurs

Future farmers and sustainability : a case study of newly established farmers in Southern Norway

| Type artikkel: Månedens masterMasteravhandling

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Industrialiseringen av jordbruket verden over har ført til en utvikling som ikke er bærekraftig og utfordringer i forhold til økonomisk lønnsomhet for produsenter, miljøødeleggelser og redusert livskvalitet for bønder. For å forstå hvordan nyetablerte bønder i Norge oppfatter bærekrafts problematikken og planlegger å praktisere innen økonomiske, miljømessige og sosiale aspekter, studerte jeg ti caser.

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It’s Not Always about Growth! Development Dynamics and Management in Food Businesses and Chains

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Økonomi

Growing small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs) face specific challenges, especially when they aim to maintain a higher quality of products and processes. While growing, they tend to converge either towards niche markets or mainstream commodity markets, and as a result sacrifice higher quality and value. In this article, we explore the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and their related food supply chains, as well as the related challenges.

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Trender i norsk landbruk 2018 Hedmark og Oppland

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Økonomi

Trender i norsk landbruk (Trendundersøkelsen) er en spørreundersøkelse blant norske gårdbrukere. Den gjennomføres av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning (tidligere Norsk senter for Bygdeforskning). Undersøkelsen har vært gjennomført annethvert år siden 2002, og årets undersøkelse er den niende i rekken. Det er dermed etablert en database som gir informasjon om utviklingen innen landbruket over tid.

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Socio-cultural factors: Opportunities and challenges for crowdfunding climate measures in Norwegian agriculture

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø

As part of the project COOLCROWD, this report provides an overview of preliminary findings and results from WP 2.2 about socio-cultural conditions for crowdfunding in Norway. The primary objective of the project is “to explore the potential of crowdfunding for climate-friendly agricultural projects in Norway as a novel, socio-technical practice that promotes a rapid transition to a low-emission society.”

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Growth, feed intake, methane emissions and carbon footprint from Holstein bull calves fed four different rations

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Klima og miljø, Storfe

There is a growing interest in finding feeding strategies that can decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. The aim of the study was to compare productivity, enteric methane emissions and carbon footprint per kg edible product of dairy bull calves fed one of four different rations.

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Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster this systemic shift.

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Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Potet, Produksjonsmetoder, Uncategorized

The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems.

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Root traits and root biomass allocation impact how wheat genotypes respond to organic amendments and earthworms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Jordbiologi, Korn

Plant-soil biological interactions are increasingly recognized as a key feature of agroecosystems, promoting both crop and soil health. However, the effectiveness of plant-soil synergies is likely modulated by both root system characteristics and soil management impacts on soil biological communities.

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Spring frost risk for regional apple production under a warmer climate

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Eple, Frukt, Klima og miljø

Spring frosts, as experienced in Europe in April 2016 and 2017, pose a considerable risk to agricultural production, with the potential to cause significant damages to agricultural yields. Meteorological blocking events (stable high-pressure systems) have been shown to be one of the factors that trigger cold spells in spring. While current knowledge does not allow for drawing conclusions as to any change in future frequency and duration of blocking episodes due to climate change, the combination of their stable occurrence with the biological system under a warming trend can lead to economic damage increases.

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Optimising the utilisation of agricultural manure for biogas production : a model based on the county of Vestfold in Norway

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Gjødsel, Klima og miljø, Økonomi

The threat of climate-change and the harm it is doing to the Earth has been known for a long time, and the worlds countries have come together to try to limit the damages humanity is doing. The result is multiple international conventions and agreements, most recently the Paris-agreement in 2016. Norway ratified the agreement and implemented the goals in November 2016, and have since searched for solutions to reduce the overall emissions of harmful gasses to the atmosphere. One of these goals was to produce more renewable energy.

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Evaluating lifetime nitrogen use efficiency of dairy cattle: A modelling approach

The increased nitrogen (N) use efficiency in cattle farming is proposed as a key action to improve N management and reduce the environmental impact of cattle farming systems. Most attention has been given to lactating cow nutrition, excluding the elements of fertility, disease, and the non-lactating animals within the herd. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a herd-level simulation model incorporating these elements to assess dairy farm N use efficiency.

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Willingness to pay and moral stance: The case of farm animal welfare in Germany

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Dyrevelferd, Husdyr

This study examines the impact of ethical attitude on the willingness to pay for farm animal welfare improvement in Germany. Little is known about the pluralism of moral attitudes that may exist behind farm animal welfare issues and its relationship to customers' willingness to pay for it. Via a large survey (n = 1334) we are able to identify different moral dimensions by employing validated scales.

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Can living mulches in intercropping systems reduce the potential nitrate leaching? Studies of organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and leek (Allium porrum L.) production across European conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matplanter, Næringsstoffer, Produksjonsmetoder

The effect of introduction strategy for living mulches (LMs) to reduce the potential nitrate leaching was investigated when grown with vegetables with high nitrogen (N) demand and low use efficiency in four European countries: Italy, Slovenia, Germany and Denmark over 2 yr. The plant N uptake and soil nitrate N content at harvest, in the autumn, and in the following spring were measured below open-pollinated and hybrid cultivars of cauliflower and leek crops.

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A comparative study of food values between the United States and Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Økonomi

We compare the food values in the USA and Norway using the best–worst scaling approach. The food values examined are aimed at capturing the main issues related to food consumption such as naturalness, taste, price, safety, convenience, nutrition, novelty, origin, fairness, appearance, environmental impact and animal welfare.

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Increasing sustainability of Norwegian food production by tackling streptococcal infections in modern livestock systems

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr

Med moderniseringen av husdyrholdet i Norge har den relative betydningen av streptokokkinfeksjoner hos drøvtyggere økt. Infeksjonene reduserer produksjonen, svekker lønnsomheten, øker antibiotikabruken og utfordrer dyrevelferden. Jurbetennelser hos ku forårsaket av Streptococcus dysgalactiae er mer enn fordoblet de siste 15 årene og kan ha sammenheng med overgangen til store løsdriftsbesetninger. I sauenæringen har man sett en økning av leddbetennelser hos lam forårsaket av samme bakterie. Utbruddene har rammet store, intensivt drevne besetninger og opptil 40 % av lammene har blitt sjuke og mange har gått tapt.

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Towards a Norwegian pork production free of tail biting

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Gris

Halebiting er et alvorlig velferdsproblem i svineproduksjon og en økonomisk utfordring for bonden. Halebiting har tidligere ikke vært noe stort problem i norsk svineproduksjon, men de siste årene har Norsvin fått tilbakemeldinger om at halebiting kan være i ferd med å bli en utfordring også i Norge. Hensikten med prosjektet er derfor å redusere frekvensen av halebiting i Norge og i andre land hvor Norsvin har genetikk.

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Ensilering av frasorterte poteter og gulrøtter – fra tap til fôr med tilleggsverdi

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Fôr

Omtrent en fjerde del av potetene og gulrøttene som pakkeriene mottar blir sortert ut fordi de ikke oppfyller kravene til salg av fersk mat. Disse restråvarene har lav økonomisk verdi til tross for god fôrverdi. I dag leveres frasorterte råvarer til matindustri og brukes som fôr til drøvtyggere. Målet med prosjektet var å finne ut om potet og gulrot ensilert med probiotiske bakterier kan ha et potensiale som fôrprodukt.

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Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Organic farming systems need to replace nutrients exported via farm products, especially phosphorus (P) which may otherwise become depleted in soil in the long term. In Europe, EU regulations for organic production are shaping the farming systems with respect to inputs of nutrients. Permitted off-farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal.

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Phosphorus availability on many organically managed farms in Europe

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Maintaining sufficient soil phosphorus (P) levels for non-limiting crop growth is challenging in organic systems since off-farm inputs of P are restricted. This study assessed the status of P on organic farms in Europe using soil test results for extractable P. Data was obtained from published literature, unpublished theses, and various national and regional databases of soil test values.

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The hidden cost of UK food

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økonomi

This report finds that the food we eat costs us about twice as much as it appears in our shopping bills. For every £1 UK consumers spend on food, additional costs of around £1 are incurred. These costs are not paid by the food businesses, nor are they included within the retail price of food. Instead they are passed on to society in a range of hidden ways. In total, production-related costs account for an extra 50p for every £1 spent on food, while the costs of diet-related disease account for an
extra 37p. One surprising conclusion is that farm support payments account for only 2.5p in every hidden £1 spent on food.

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Effects of extreme weather on agricultural production and environment

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matplanter

The Nordic countries developed in the early and mid 1990’s a common concept of monitoring of environmental effects of agricultural activities. The monitoring set up consists of a number of small representative agricultural dominated catchments within each country. The primary goal of the programmes are to quantify the pollutant losses to surface waters. The monitoring programmes collect data on agricultural management practices (e.g. date of soil ploughing, date of sowing and harvest and fertilizer inputs) and crop yield data down at single field level.


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Controlled traffic farming effects on soil emissions of nitrous oxide and methane

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Produksjonsmetoder

Soil compaction affects soil aeration and gas diffusivity, and thus has a major impact on the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from fertilised soils. Controlled traffic farming (CTF) systems reduce the area of compacted soil by confining all field traffic to permanent traffic lanes, and a pilot trial at one long-term CTF site provided evidence of reduced soil emissions.

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Växtskyddsmedel i ekologisk produktion – användning och risker

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Plantevern og plantehelse, Økologisk landbruk

Förebyggande åtgärder dominerar i växtskyddet i ekologisk produktion och användningen av växtskyddsmedel är egränsad. Främst biologiska växtskyddsmedel används och utöver det ett fåtal kemiska växtskyddsmedel, de flesta med låg risk för hälsa och miljö. Dessa används främst i produktion av frukt, bär och grönsaker.


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Resilience of bacteria, archaea, fungi and N-cycling microbial guilds under plough and conservation tillage, to agricultural drought

Climate change causes droughts, which in turn cause significant physiological stress for soil microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how the abundance of total bacterial, crenarchaeal and fungal communities and the abundance of N-cycling microbial guilds responded to a severe agricultural drought event in a long-term experiment of minimum tillage (MT) and conventional ploughing (CT) at two soil depths.

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Active Packaging Applications for Food

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Emballasje, Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The traditional role of food packaging is continuing to evolve in response to changing market needs. Current drivers such as consumer's demand for safer, “healthier,” and higher‐quality foods, ideally with a long shelf‐life; the demand for convenient and transparent packaging, and the preference for more sustainable packaging materials, have led to the development of new packaging technologies, such as active packaging (AP).

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Fine-Tuning the Fight Against Food Waste

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The complex causes of consumer food waste make it difficult for commercial actors and public policy makers to develop successful foodwaste reduction campaigns. One of the essential problems is that consumer food waste seems to be the unplanned result of divergent food-related behaviors. The current research investigates the relationship between distinctive consumer food-related lifestyle patterns and food waste.

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Mot et bærekraftig norsk matsystem: Effekt på selvforsyningsgrad og norsk jordbruk ved redusert konsum av kjøtt

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Husdyr, Kjøtt, Klima og miljø, Matplanter, Økonomi

Sentralt i økologisk økonomi (ØØ) er tanken om at jordas ressurser er begrenset og at det finnes en optimal størrelse for økonomien. På overordnet nivå handler denne oppgaven om å anerkjenne konseptuelt at det er en øvre grense for hvor mye mat vi kan produsere på jorda. Globale endringstrender som befolkningsvekst, økt velstand og ressursbruk sammen med miljøutfordringer som klimaendringer, redusert biologisk mangfold, økt press på arealressurser, vannmangel og utarming av matjord peker mot at vi kan nærme oss en situasjon med mulig global matknapphet. I et slikt perspektiv er det naturlig å øke fokuset på matsikkerhet, og se på hvordan det norske matsystemet kan bli mer bærekraftig samtidig som det forsyner oss med en større andel av den maten vi spiser.

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Flaskehalser og muligheter i verdikjeden for økologisk frukt, bær og grønnsaker

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Bær, Distribusjon og salg, Frukt, Grønnsaker, Økologisk landbruk

I denne rapporten presenteres resultatene for et prosjekt som har sett på flaskehalser og muligheter for norskprodusert økologisk frukt, bær og grønnsaker gjennom hele verdikjeden fra produsent til forbruker. For å få mer kunnskap om dette er det brukt både kvalitative intervjuer og en mindre, web-basert spørreundersøkelse blant pakkerier og fruktlagre.

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Overvåkingsresultater for plantevernmidler i næringsmidler 2017

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Bær, Folkehelse, Frukt, Grønnsaker, Gulrot, Matplanter, Plantevern og plantehelse

Mattilsynet utfører årlig offentlig kontroll av plantevernmiddelrester i næringsmidler. Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra dette overvåkingsprogrammet for prøver tatt ut i 2017. Hensikten med overvåkingsprogrammet er hovedsakelig å overvåke nivået for rester av plantevernmidler for å sikre at forbruker ikke utsettes for plantevernmiddelrester som kan være helsefarlig. Videre skal overvåkingen bidra til å sikre at næringsmiddelvirksomhetene etterlever regelverket slik at plantevernmiddelrestene ikke overskrider gjeldende grenseverdi.

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Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Karbon og karbonlagring, Matjord

The effects of organic versus conventional farming systems on changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) has long been debated. The effects of such comparisons may depend considerably on the design of the respective systems and climate and soil conditions under which they are performed. Here, we compare a range of arable organic and conventional crop systems at three sites (Jyndevad, Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in Denmark through long-term experiments initiated in 1997.

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Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming

1. Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role.

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Kunnskapsbehov i økologisk landbruk

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Økologisk landbruk

Forbruket av økologisk mat har økt jevnt i Norge fra 2011 til 2016, mens det økologiske arealet har blitt redusert i samme periode. NIBIO som er en viktig leverandør for kunnskap om økologisk landbruk fikk i Statsbudsjettet for 2016 tildelt kunnskapsutviklingsmidler fra Landbruks- og matdepartementet som var øremerka til å "videreutvikle forskningsbasert kunnskap om økologisk landbruk".

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Citizen and consumer evaluation of organic food and farming in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Folkehelse

In this paper, we examine citizen and consumer attitudes towards, and preferences for, private and public goods from organic agriculture in Norway. The study is based on a survey among 939 Norwegians. The results show that in the role as citizens, the respondents hold a moderate belief in the superiority of organic farming concerning the production of public goods, but they give relatively low priority to prompting organic farming compared to other agricultural policy goals.

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Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees

Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees.

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En ny innovativt hållbar IPM-strategi för effektiv kontroll av bladlus i fruktodlingar

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Frukt, Matplanter, Plantevern og plantehelse

The use in horticulture of neonicotinoid insecticides is under debate at the European level due to their toxic side effects on natural enemies and pollinators. Alternatives need to be developed to provide efficient and sustainable control of economic important pest such as aphids. In this project we will set-up an IPM tool to enhance the biological control of aphids in fruit crops in Sweden.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review.

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Økologisk landbruk

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low
pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing
yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context.

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Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Food’s environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities.

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Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields.

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Quinoa dyrking i Norge

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Matplanter

Rapporten gjennomgår bakgrunnen for quinoadyrking historisk, botanisk og hvorfor quinoa med sine næringsstoffer har fått en status som "superfood". Dernest gjennomgås forutsetninger i Norge for å lykke med quinoadyrking.

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Teknik för småskalig grönsaksodling

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Grønnsaker, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder, Økologisk landbruk

Mindre yrkesodlingar har behov av mångsidig utrustning som kan användas i olika grödor. Det fnns många små handredskap för hemträdgårdsodling och stora maskiner för större specialiserade yrkesodlingar, men det finns inte lika mycket teknik anpassad för mindre yrkesodlingar. Den ekologiska grönsaksodlingen bedrivs generellt i mindre skala än den
konventionella.

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