Tema: Matprisen

Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science – Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Klima og miljø

Nature and its vital contributions to people, which together embody biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are deteriorating worldwide. Nature embodies different concepts for different people, including biodiversity, ecosystems, Mother Earth, systems of life and other analogous concepts. Nature’s contributions to people embody different concepts such as ecosystem goods and services, and nature’s gifts. Both nature and nature’s contributions to people are vital for human existence and good quality of life (human well-being, living in harmony with nature, living well in balance and harmony with Mother Earth, and other analogous concepts).

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Separasjon av ku og kalv

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Melk, Storfe, Økologisk landbruk

I konvensjonell melkeproduksjon er det ingen krav om at ku og kalv skal være sammen, og tradisjonelt blir ku og kalv separert umiddelbart eller kort tid etter fødsel. I økologisk melkeproduksjon skal kalven die kua i minst tre dager, og den skal ha naturlig melk i minst tre måneder. Forbrukerne er stadig mer opptatt av dyrevelferd, og det er et økende fokus på det å ha ku og kalv sammen lenger i melkeproduksjon.

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FUTURE NORDIC DIETS

The global food system causes large emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the environment. Livestock are responsible for a large part of these emissions and take up most of the agricultural land for grazing and feed production while only making a more limited contribution to the global food supply. In this project, we have used an agricultural mass flow model to assess two future food system scenarios for the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (hereafter “the Nordic countries”).

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Final report for the CORE Organic Plus funded project “Innovative design and management to boost functional biodiversity of organic orchards EcoOrchard”

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Eple, Frukt, Økologisk landbruk

Orchards are perennial cultures, and especially in organic fruit production it is essential to design and manage orchards in a way which favours predators and parasitoids over pests. Increasing plant biodiversity and habitats in such a way that beneficials are favoured is called Functional (Agro-)Biodiversity (FAB). The value of FAB for reducing pesticide use in fruit production is generally acknowledged, and many organic fruit growers try to increase it in spite of a shortage of information on FAB, economical and technical challenges and lack of situation-specific, detailed advice.

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Approaches to embed diversity in food systems – Diversfood outcomes from field to plate

Underutilised crops are offering opportunities to diversify and improve farming and food systems as a response both to climate change and to social changes in food culture and uses. The choice of seed greatly determines farming practices and all stages of the food supply chain right up to the consumers’ plate.

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Kvalitetskorn til mat – muligheter i ikke- kommersialisert norsk sortsmateriale

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Korn, Økologisk landbruk

25 sorter og foredlingslinjer av vårhvete ble sammenliknet i feltforsøk på to lokaliteter i Nord-Trøndelag i 2017 og 2018, med økologiske dyrkingsbetingelser. Utvalget inneholdt sorter som er i bruk i økologisk dyrking til håndverksbaking i Trøndelag (Dala landhvete, Fram II), enkelte andre eldre norske sorter (Norrøna, Møystad, Runar), to svenske sorter med litt annen glutenkvalitet enn moderne norsk hvete (Polkka, Sport), og Mirakel og Seniorita som var vanlige handelssorter i Norge i 2017 og 2018.

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Links between profitability, nitrogen surplus, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy intensity on organic and conventional dairy farms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Melk, Storfe, Økologisk landbruk, Økonomi

This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, on-farm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ.

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Sortsforsøk i erter og åkerbønne

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Belgvekster, Matplanter, Planteproteiner

Erter og åkerbønner som har blitt dyrket i Norge, har i all hovedsak blitt brukt i kraftfôr, og kraftfôr-industrien signaliserer at de de ønsker større produksjon. Samtidig er forbrukerne blitt mer opptatt av planteprotein til mat, og en ser nå mange produkter i butikkene som er basert på erter, bønner eller soya. De fleste av disse produktene er basert på importerte råvarer, men forbrukere foretrekker norske produkter.

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Consumer Readiness to Reduce Meat Consumption for the Purpose of Environmental Sustainability: Insights from Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Planteproteiner, Samfunnsutvikling

Food production is associated with various environmental impacts and the production of meat is highlighted as a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. A transition toward plant-based and low-meat diets has thus been emphasised as an important contribution to reducing climate change. By combining results from a consumer survey, focus group interviews and an in-store field experiment, this article investigates whether Norwegian consumers are ready to make food choices based on what is environmentally sustainable.

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Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Erosjon, Humus, Jordbiologi, Jordpakking, Jordvern, Klima og miljø, Matjord

2015 was the United Nations International Year of Soils and, for the first time, soils and the life within them were in the spotlight globally. We are pleased therefore, that an international group of experts and scientists from the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), in close collaboration with colleagues from the Commission’s Directorate-General for the Environment and the Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative, have produced the first ever Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects.

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Å ta i bruk kunnskapens tre – Frå organisatorisk til dyrkingsteknisk innovasjon i fruktnæringa i Hardanger og Sør-Tyrol

Denne oppgåva handlar om korleis innovasjonar skjer i fruktnæringa i Hardanger og Sør-Tyrol (Italia). Denne problemstillinga vert gripe an gjennom fire underspørsmål: Korleis vart fruktnæringa den dominerande jordbruksnæringa i desse områda? Korleis har forholdet mellom produksjonssystem, salssystem og kunnskapsinfrastruktur utvikla seg over tid? Korleis står denne utviklinga i forhold til utviklinga i næringa som heilskap? Korleis vert kunnskap utanfrå henta inn og gjort nyttig lokalt?

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Beitemarka – et ukjent karbonlager

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Husdyr, Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø

Husdyrbruk vil fortsatt være viktig framover for å imøtekomme økende etterspørsel etter matvarer i en tid da klimaendringene truer matproduksjonen over store deler av verden (NOU, 2018:17). Beite holder landskapet åpent og bidrar til å opprettholde verdifullt biologisk mangfold på naturbeitemark. Samtidig som husdyra og husdyrproduksjonen bidrar til utslipp av klimagasser, bidrar de gjennom beite også til opptak og lagring av klimagasser (Teague, mfl., 2016).

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Persistence in soil of Miscanthus biochar in laboratory and field conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord

Evaluating biochars for their persistence in soil under field conditions is an important step towards their implementation for carbon sequestration. Current evaluations might be biased because the vast majority of studies are short-term laboratory incubations of biochars produced in laboratory-scale pyrolyzers.

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Karbonbinding i norsk landbruksjord – En vurdering av hvordan nåværende praksis på dyrket mark kan tilpasses for å øke karbonbinding i norsk landbruksjord .

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk

Landbruket er en viktig del av karbonkretsløpet. FAO har anslått at hvis landbruket globalt tar i bruk kjent karbon-bindende jordbrukspraksis, som vekstskifte med eng, erstatter åpenåker med jorddekke og underkultur osv., er det mulig å binde tilstrekkelig karbon til å snu økningen av CO2 i luft og reversere klimaendringene. Karbonbinding i jord er et viktig bidrag til å holde jordens temperaturøkning til under 2°C (Lal. R. 2013. Ghabbour, E. m. fl. 2017).

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Urban Agriculture: A Regenerative Urban Development Practice to Decrease the Ecological Footprints of Cities

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk, Urbant landbruk

Modern cities are characterized by intense human interactions and economic activities that- in many cases- have little or no consideration of the surrounding environment. Every day, the process of urbanisation is becoming more resource-intensive, and the results are grave, including, climate change, the loss of natural fertility of farmland and the loss of biodiversity all over the world.

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Towards resilient agriculture and beyond – The promise of regenerative agriculture

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk

We are all dependent on agriculture as we all need food and agriculture covers around 37% of the total land area. It would therefore be an understatement to say that it is an important subject for our common future. A subject however that is also facing and causing many challenges. Is agriculture able to fit into the people, planet, prosperity adagio, or does one of these always have to suffer like it currently does?

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Agroforestry Standards for Regenerative Agriculture

Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices.


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Jordhelse, karbon og regenerativt landbruk – for bønder, av ein bonde

Etter 20 års erfaring som konvensjonell kornbonde og deretter 7 år som økologisk kornbonde ble jeg i 2015 gjort oppmerksom på ein youtubevideo av Gabe Brown. Den videoen satte meg nesten helt ut pga. at jeg skjønna hvor lite jeg egentlig forstod om jord, og hvilken effekt jordhelsa kan ha på plantevekst. Det er 4 år siden jeg kom over dette med regenerativt landbruk og i perioder har jeg brukt store deler av fritida mi på å lese mer om dette for å lære og forstå. Jeg har her prøvd å lage ei lita konsentrert samling av hovedpunkta av det jeg har lest i artikler og bøker og hørt/sett på youtube om jordhelse, hvorfor og hvordan.

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Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of digestates from three green manures

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Gjødsel, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Green manure mixtures including legumes and forbs can help to increase N availability in organic arable systems. Anaerobic digestion of green manures may provide ammonium rich digestate, which can be redistributed as fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant species composition, cutting strategy and anaerobic digestion on the N fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of different green manures.

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Rotogräsens När Var Hur – En guide till icke-kemisk bekämpning av perenna ogräs

Kvickrot, åkertistel och tussilago! Det var det vanligaste svaret Per Bohlin fick på sin fråga om vil­ka ogräs som är svårast att kontrollera. Han var över­assistent på Centralanstalten för försöksväsendet på jordbruksområdet, och frågan ställdes i en enkät som sändes ut till framträdande lantbrukare i varje svensk socken år 1921. Möjligen bortsett från tussilagon är det ett svar som fortfarande har sin giltighet, framför­ allt inom ekologisk odling.

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A long-term field experiment demonstrates the influence of tillage on the bacterial potential to produce soil structure-stabilizing agents such as exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

Background
Stable soil aggregates are essential for optimal crop growth and preventing soil erosion. However, tillage is often used in agriculture to loosen the soil, which disrupts the integrity of these aggregates. Soil aggregation can be enhanced by bacteria through their ability to produce exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides. These compounds stabilize soil aggregates by “gluing” soil particles together.

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Abating N in Nordic agriculture – Policy, measures and way forward

During the past twenty years, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) have introduced a range of measures to reduce losses of nitrogen (N) to air and to aquatic environment by leaching and runoff. However, the agricultural sector is still an important N source to the environment, and projections indicate relatively small emission reductions in the coming years.

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Muligheter og utfordringer for økt karbonbinding i jordbruksjord

En økning i karbonlagring i landbruksjord er angitt som et viktig klimatiltak både internasjonalt og i Norge. Tiltaket er godt begrunnet: Jorden inneholder to til tre ganger så mye karbon som atmosfæren, noe som innebærer at relative små endringer i innhold av karbon i jord kan ha betydelige effekter på CO2-innholdet i atmosfæren og det globale klimaet.

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The experience of members of European CSAs

Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is an alternative food system that directly connects consumers with producers. Though in theory CSA ameliorates some of the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts of conventional food systems, some research has shown that in practice it can still give rise to similar ill effects that threaten their long-term viability, e.g., financial insecurity due to insufficient knowledge about consumer attitudes.

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Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økologisk landbruk

The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic Regulation. However, other factors, such as the production type, farm size, geographical location and—not the least—the management of the farm, also influence the contribution.

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Exploring hair cortisone concentration as a novel tool to assess chronic stress in sheep With tick-borne Fever

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Sau

Tick-borne fever (TBF), caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum and transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus, has considerable consequences for animal welfare and economy in the sheep industry. Non-invasive, objective methods to quantify chronic stress are needed in order to evaluate the welfare impact of disease.

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Farm Animal Cognition—Linking Behavior, Welfare and Ethics

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Gris, Husdyr, Storfe

Farm animal welfare is a major concern for society and food production. To more accurately evaluate animal farming in general and to avoid exposing farm animals to poor welfare situations, it is necessary to understand not only their behavioral but also their cognitive needs and capacities. Thus, general knowledge of how farm animals perceive and interact with their environment is of major importance for a range of stakeholders, from citizens to politicians to cognitive ethologists to philosophers.

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Decentralization and liberalization of seeds and plant genetic resources regulations in Europe: A Danish case study.

In a context of severe plant genetic diversity erosion, the regulatory framework of the European Union is perceived as a limiting factor for practices aiming to conserve cultivated biodiversity. To create more supportive frameworks, some EU member states liberalized seed trade and landraces cultivation at national or regional level. For this paper, a case study of the 2015 cereal and vegetable seed legislation reform in Denmark has been carried out.

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Mykorrhiza i landbruksjord

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Jordbiologi, Matjord, Sopp

Gras, korn, belgvekster og en del grønnsaker kan leve sammen med arbuskulær mykorrhizasopp. Dette samlivet kalles sopprot, fordi deler av soppen lever i plantenes rotceller og sopphyfene gjør rotnettet til plantene større.

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R-1/18 Rådgivning i landbruket – en casestudie

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling

Rådgivning i landbruket – en casestudie, er en rapport som oppsummerer arbeidspakke 2 i forskningsprosjektet Kompetent bonde som har blitt ledet av Ruralis og pågått i perioden 2015 – 2018. Målet med casestudien var todelt: 1) å studere sentrale faktorer for innovasjon og endring av praksis blant bønder og 2) å studere hvilke modeller og metoder som kan bli identifisert i rådgivninga og hvordan disse fungerer.

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A-7/18 Farmland conversion to fight climate change? Resource hierarchies, discursive power and ulterior motives in land use politics

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling

In December 2013, local politicians celebrated with a champagne toast as the municipality of Trondheim received permission from the Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation to develop 110 ha (272 acres) of high quality farmland for housing and business. The primary reason for this decision was the promotion of a more climate-friendly city.

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R-6/18 Veien mot et grønnere landbruk. En logistisk flernivåanalyse av hvilke forhold som påvirker bønders sannsynlighet for å iverksette miljøtiltak fra RMP eller SMIL

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

Denne rapporten er en studie av Regionale miljøprogram (RMP) og Spesielle miljøtiltak i landbruket (SMIL), som undersøker hvorvidt programmene er tilpasset norske bønders motiver når det kommer til å gjennomføre miljøtiltak? RMP og SMIL er miljøprogram som bygger på utdeling av økonomiske insentiver i bytte mot bærekraftige driftsendringer hos bøndene.

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Soil quality – A critical review

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord

Sampling and analysis or visual examination of soil to assess its status and use potential is widely practiced from plot to national scales. However, the choice of relevant soil attributes and interpretation of measurements are not straightforward, because of the complexity and site-specificity of soils, legacy effects of previous land use, and trade-offs between ecosystem services. Here we review soil quality and related concepts, in terms of definition, assessment approaches, and indicator selection and interpretation.

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Sustenance and sustainability: maximizing the impact of school gardens on health outcomes

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Grønnsaker, Skolehager

Objective
School garden programmes have become popular action-oriented learning environments in many countries, often driven by converging priorities of environmental sustainability and healthful diets. Many of these programmes have assessed the impact on dietary intake, specifically fruit and vegetable intake, and related dietary behaviours, such as knowledge, preference, motivation, intention and self-efficacy to eat and prepare fruit and vegetables. The objective of the present study was twofold: (i) to review published garden-based programmes conducted in schools targeting dietary intake and/or determinants of dietary behaviour in children; and (ii) to identify similar strategies and components employed by these garden-based programmes.


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Skolehagen vår! Pedagogiske tips og praktisk arbeid

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Skolehager

I vår tid trenger vi mer enn noen gang gode undervisningsarenaer for å lære om prosessene i naturen, om hvor matvekster kommer fra og hvordan de ser ut og utvikler seg, en arena som egner seg for å øve og utvikle evne til samarbeid og hvor en kan lære god arbeidsteknikk og oppleve tverrfaglig læring.

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A survey of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes associated with damage in carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus) fields in Norway

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Grønnsaker, Gulrot

Nematodes cause yield reduction in agriculture worldwide. In research, the main focus has been on cyst nematodes and root-knot nematodes and not so much on free-living plant-parasitic nematodes. Thus, the importance of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes is likely underestimated. The aim of this survey was to get an overview of free-living plant-parasitic nematodes in carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus) production, and their association with damage.

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Examining multi-functionality for crop yield and ecosystem services in five systems of agroecological intensification

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Presisjonsjordbruk, Økologisk landbruk

Agroecological intensification (AEI) integrates ecological principles and biodiversity management into farming systems with the aims of increasing farm productivity, reducing dependency on external inputs, and sustaining or enhancing ecosystem services. This review develops an analytic framework to characterize the fulfilment of these objectives by documenting the co-occurrence of positive, neutral, and negative outcomes for crop yield and nine regulating ecosystem services.

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Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture's environmental impacts.

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Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50–90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity.

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Food systems for sustainable development: proposals for a profound four-part transformation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative.

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All ull er verdifull – Kompostering av ull i talle og spørreundersøkelse om bruk av ull i Fosenregionen

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Husdyr, Sau

Ull er et næringsrikt materiale og lavverdiull (skitten, filtet og noen fraksjoner av pigmentert ull)kan ha verdi som en næringsstoffressurs i landbruket. Rapporten omhandler en kartlegging av slik ull gjennom en spørreundersøkelse blant sauebønder i Fosenregionen. Flere gårdbrukere svarte at de kaster eller brenner ullen og noen sa de ønsker seg kunnskap om alternative måter å bruke ullen på.

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Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be defined—at all scales—in the context of rapidly rising global environmental changes in the Anthropocene, while focusing on eradicating poverty and hunger and contributing to human wellbeing.

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Agricultural ecosystems and their services: the vanguard of sustainability?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Sustainable Development Goals offer an opportunity to improve human well-being while conserving natural resources. Ecosystem services highlight human well-being benefits ecosystems, including agricultural ecosystems, provides. Whereas agricultural systems produce the majority of our food, they drive significant environmental degradation. This tension between development and environmental conservation objectives is not an immutable outcome as agricultural systems are simultaneously dependents, and providers of ecosystem services.

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Fangvekstenes økosystemtjenester – Kunnskapsstatus om effekten av fangvekster

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Fosfor, Klima og miljø, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Denne rapporten gir en oversikt over fangvekster og deres effekter på avling, mineralsk nitrogen i jord, karbonbinding, utslipp til vann og luft, jordstruktur, biodiversitet og ugras. Det er fortrinnsvis brukt studier fra Norge og Norden for å øke kunnskapen om fangvekster. Se side 5.

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