Tema: Matprisen

Livsløpsvurdering av tomatproduksjon i Norge

| Type artikkel: Månedens masterMasteravhandling

Kategori: Drivhus, Klima og miljø, Matplanter, Tomat

Produksjon av biogass gir energi i form av biogass og et næringsrikt gjødselprodukt i form av biogjødsel. I tillegg arbeides det med å finne aktuelle bruksområder for CO2, som er et biprodukt fra oppgraderingen av biogass til drivstoffkvalitet. Et pilotveksthus er nå under oppføringi Tønsberg. Her vil det gjøres forsøk på å bruke CO2 fra biogassproduksjonen i veksthuset der det skal dyrkes tomater. I tillegg har biogass og biogjødsel egenskaper som gjør at de kan fungere som substitutt for fossile innsatsfaktoreri tradisjonell veksthusproduksjon.

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Forbs differentially affect soil microbial community composition and functions in unfertilized ryegrass-red clover leys

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Matjord, Næringsstoffer

Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems is proposed to enhance multiple ecosystem services. Adding selected forbs such as caraway (Carum carvi L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) to productive grass-clover mixtures can further enhance forage yields, root biomass, uptake of mineral nutrients and improve animal performance. Yet, it remains unclear whether and how adding these forbs to grass-clover mixtures can influence soil microbial communities and associated soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling.

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Red clover for silage: management impacts on herbage yield, nutritive value, ensilability and persistence, and relativity to perennial ryegrass

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

This 6‐year experiment quantified the impacts of management factors on red clover yield, persistence, nutritive value and ensilability, and compared these with perennial ryegrass receiving inorganic N fertilizer. Within a randomized complete block design, field plots were used to evaluate a 2 (cultivar, Merviot and Ruttinova) × 2 (alone and with perennial ryegrass) × 2 (0 and 50 kg fertilizer N ha−1 in mid‐March) × 2 (harvest schedule) combination of the factors relating to red clover, and a 2 (harvest schedule) × 4 (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 for each cut) combination of the factors relating to perennial ryegrass.

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Transitions to Agroecological Systems: Farmers’ Viewpoints

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Produksjonsmetoder, Samfunnsutvikling

We report a social science study of farmers’ experience of transition towards agroecological approaches in the UK with the aims to (i) identify motivations, challenges and opportunities encountered, together with the perceived benefits and disadvantages associated with the transition and (ii) gain an understanding of individuals’ trajectories in context, including social, economic, biophysical, cultural and psychological dimensions.

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Soil fertility after 10 years of conservation tillage in organic farming

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordpakking, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

It has become commonplace to consider ploughing as an agricultural practice that destroys soil fertility. Organic farmers have traditionally used the plough to till their soil and control weeds. However, there is a growing interest in adopting tillage practices without ploughing to preserve long-term soil fertility and in the hope, subsequently, of increasing crop yields. The aim of this paper is to assess if conservation tillage treatments in organic farming did in fact improve long-term soil fertility, wheat rooting and yield in a long term field experiment (2004–2015).

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A Gardener’s Influence on Urban Soil Quality

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Urbant landbruk

Gardens are hot spots for urban biodiversity and provide habitats for many plant and animal species, both above- and below-ground. Furthermore, gardens provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including carbon (C) storage and nutrient cycling. Although the soil is the foundation of sustainable gardens providing those ecosystem services, very little is known about the consequences of garden management on soil quality.

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Phosphorus bioavailability of sewage sludge-based recycled fertilizers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

Six phosphorus (P) fertilizers recycled from sewage sludge [Struvite SSL, Struvite AirPrex,P-RoC, Mephrec, Pyrolysis coal and Ash (Mg-SSA)] were tested for their plant availability in potted soil of pH 7.2 under greenhouse conditions. The crop sequence simulated a rotation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), maize (Zea maize L.), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

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Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

In this paper we present effects of four paired agricultural management practices (organic matter (OM) addition versus no organic matter input, no-tillage (NT) versus conventional tillage, crop rotation versus monoculture, and organic agriculture versus conventional agriculture) on five key soil quality indicators, i.e., soil organic matter (SOM) content, pH, aggregate stability, earthworms (numbers) and crop yield.

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Life cycle analysis of organic tomato production and supply in Sweden

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Tomat, Økologisk landbruk

Improving sustainability of organic tomato value chains requires increase of production and reduction of losses and related environmental burden. This paper presents the study conducted on organic tomato produced and consumed in Sweden. Using life cycle analysis (LCA) method with SimaPro8.2 LCA software, the cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP100) were investigated within the system boundary of cradle-to-consumer gate.

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Importance of cover crops in alleviating negative e ff ects of reduced soil tillage and promoting soil fertility in a winter wheat cropping system

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Korn, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

eduction of soil tillage is of paramount importance for agricultural soil preservation. However, it is often accompanied by yield reduction and weed management problems. In this perspective, cover crops could play an important role to alleviate weed infestation and sustain yield. In this study, the results from a three-year experiment of cover crop cultivation in different soil tillage treatments is presented, together with results from DayCent simulations on the long term evolution of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen.

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Norwegian Short Food Supply Chain Development

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Distribusjon og salg, Økonomi

Agro-food systems around the globe are consolidating and homogenizing. In response, they are also segmenting and diversifying. The emerging agro-food networks fit into what scholars describe as economic and rural development paradigm shifts, partly in response to many clarion calls within academia and civil society for change in agro-food system priorities.

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Towards an EU Regulatory Framework for Climate-Smart Agriculture: The Example of Soil Carbon Sequestration

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

This article assesses current and proposed European Union (EU) climate and environmental law, and the legal instruments associated with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), to see whether soil carbon sequestration is sufficiently promoted as a promising example of ‘climate-smart agriculture’. The assessment shows that current and proposed policies and instruments are inadequate to stimulate large-scale adoption of soil carbon projects across Europe.

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Waste products as alternative phosphorus fertilisers part I: inorganic P species affect fertilisation effects depending on soil pH

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

One of the bottlenecks to efficient phosphorus (P) recycling is limited understanding of the relationships between inorganic P species in waste products and their P fertilisation effects. In this study, we characterised inorganic P species in seven waste products (two biomass ashes, meat bone meal, fish sludge, catering waste and two food waste-based digestate products) and two manure products (dairy and chicken manure) by: (1) Sequential chemical fractionation, (2) X-ray powder diffraction and (3) solid-state 31P MAS-NMR spectroscopy.

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Impacts of organic matter amendments on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in grassland soils

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord

Organic matter amendments have been proposed as a means to enhance soil carbon (C) stocks on degraded soils. However, only few data exist on rates of soil C sequestration or the fate of added C in grassland soils, which are generally thought to have high C storage potential. We measured changes in the amount of C and nitrogen (N) in soils and in the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) following a single application of composted organic matter in two annual grasslands from different bioclimatic zones (coastal and inland valley).

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Gårdsstudier i Agropro‐prosjektet – Erfaringer fra gårdsstudier i korn og grovforbasert husdyrproduksjon

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Korn, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder

Som en del av arbeidet i Agropro med å utvikle og formidle ny kunnskap som grunnlag for bedre agronomisk praksis i korn- og grovfôrproduksjonen, la en opp til studier og enkle eksperimenter på gårdsbruk i ulike landsdeler og innenfor ulike produksjonsgreiner. Målene var å finne årsaker til at det avlingspotensialet som de naturgitte forutsetningene gir grunnlag for, ikke blir tatt ut i praksis, samt å lage og teste ut en møteplass for formidling av kunnskap, forskningsresultater og
forskningsbehov.

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When too much isn’t enough: Does current food production meet global nutritional needs?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Sustainably feeding the next generation is often described as one of the most pressing “grand challenges” facing the 21st century. Generally, scholars propose addressing this problem by increasing agricultural production, investing in technology to boost yields, changing diets, or reducing food waste. In this paper, we explore whether global food production is nutritionally balanced by comparing the diet that nutritionists recommend versus global agricultural production statistics.

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Impact of projected climate change on workability, attainable yield, profitability and farm mechanization in Norwegian spring cereals

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Korn, Matjord

In cold-temperate climate with high soil water content in spring, the farmer often faces the choice between topsoil compaction during seedbed preparation and delayed sowing, both of which may reduce attainable cereal yield. The objective of this study was to explore whether future climate change with increasing precipitation would aggravate this dilemma.

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Faba Bean Cultivation – Revealing Novel Managing Practices for More Sustainable and Competitive European Cropping Systems

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Belgvekster, Klima og miljø, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder

Faba beans are highly nutritious because of their high protein content: they are a good source of mineral nutrients, vitamins, and numerous bioactive compounds. Equally important is the contribution of faba bean in maintaining the sustainability of agricultural systems, as it is highly efficient in the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. This article provides an overview of factors influencing faba bean yield and quality, and addresses the main biotic and abiotic constraints. It also reviews the factors relating to the availability of genetic material and the agronomic features of faba bean production that contribute to high yield and the improvement of European cropping systems.

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Maten vi kaster

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

Med mathåndtering i hverdagslivet som utgangspunkt finner denne rapporten fem hovedårsaker til matsvinn i norske husholdninger: (1) Forbrukerne er usikre når det gjelder egen vurdering av mattrygghet og matkvalitet, (2) Rutinisert mathåndtering fører til for få bruksanledninger for mange matprodukter, (3) Matens verdi oppfattes som lav, (4) Langtidsplanlegging reduserer fleksibiliteten i hverdagen, og (5) Forbrukerne er lite bevisste på hvor mye mat de selv kaster. Basert på disse årsakene utredes kontekstuelle tiltak innenfor to hovedområder: (1) materielle strukturer (emballasje, butikk og kjøleskap) og sosiale og (2) kulturelle strukturer (populærformidling, måltidsorganisering og utdanning).

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Vermi – biochar as alternative to peat as growing substrate for greenhouse vegetables

Biochar is a novel soil amendment technique with a potential of sequestering atmospheric carbon into soil with an increase in certain soil quality parameters essential for crop production. Intense use of peat as growing media, especially in horticulture, has led to a huge exploitation of stable carbon from wetland mosses into the atmosphere accelerating climate change.

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Livsløpsanalyse (LCA) av dyrking av erter og åkerbønner i Norge

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matplanter

I dette studiet analyserte vi miljøeffekter av å produsere erter og åkerbønner i et korndominert vekstskifte på en gård ved Oslofjorden ved hjelp av livsløpsanalyse (LCA). Miljøeffekter av høsthvetedyrking (samme gård) ble tatt med som referanse. Miljøeffektene ble uttrykt gjennom følgende ni miljøindikatorer; globalt oppvarmingspotensial, eutrofiering av ferskvann, eutrofiering av marine miljøer, økotoksisitet i ferskvann, terrestrisk forsuring, forbruk av fossil energi, human toksisitet, økotoksisitet i marine miljø og terrestrisk økotoksisitet.

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Kartlegging av restråstoff fra jordbruket

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Matsvinn, Økonomi

Med denne rapporten ønsker vi å bidra til en bedre oversikt over volum, sammensetning, kvalitet, anvendelse og nye muligheter for bruk av restråstoff fra norske industriell bearbeiding av cerealer, kjøtt, planteoljer, frukt, bær, grønnsaker og potet.

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Food, farmers, and the future: Investigating prospects of increased food production within a national context

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Produksjonsmetoder, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

With international food price shocks in 2008 and 2011, food security became a political priority in many countries. In addition, some politicians have recently adopted a more nationalistic stance. Against that background, this paper critically investigates the prospects of increased food production within a national context. We use a small, high-income country, Norway, as an empirical case.

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Consumer preference for animal welfare when buying eggs

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Økonomi

Ved hjelp av tre naturlige felteksperimenter gjennomført i norske dagligvarebutikker måler vi forbrukeres forståelse av dyrevelferdsmerking på egg. De tre naturlige felteksperimentene er: 1) Innføring av en "ubehagelig" kartong for buregg som tydelig informerer at eggene kommer fra høner som bor i bur. 2) Informasjon i butikk om velferden til høner som lever i økologiske produksjonssystemer. 3) Fjerning av buregg i en dagligvarekjede.

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VIABLE CLIMATE-FRIENDLY FARMING, SOCIO-ECONOMIC STRATEGIES

Climate change presents a real challenge to farming, not only in faraway countries but here, too, in our European countryside. Political incentives, such as the recently ratified Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention of Climate Change, acknowledge this challenge, and the first steps have been taken to address the issue.

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DEMONSTRATING STRATEGIES FOR ORGANIC AND LOW-INPUT FARMING TO MITIGATE AND ADAPT TO CLIMATE CHANGE

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Agroforestry, Agroøkologi, Klima og miljø, Økologisk landbruk

Climate change affects our entire planet, including Europe. It is a phenomenon that is closely linked to rising Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and that is already having visible detrimental effects on human activities, such as farming. The climate will keep on changing and temperatures will keep on rising, which leaves us with the questions: how does climate change affect our food supply, how do food systems affect climate change, and what can we do about it?

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Kompetanse og rådgiving i jordbruket: Kunnskapsoversikt, aktuelle problemstillinger og analytiske perspektiver for studier av bønders kompetanse som samspill mellom bønder, rådgiving og forskning

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Produksjonsmetoder, Samfunnsutvikling

Rapporten gir en oversikt over norsk og internasjonal forskning på tema knyttet til rådgiving, kunnskap og innovasjon i jordbruket. Oversikten omfatter også en kort gjennomgang av de mest aktuelle faglige perspektiver som brukes i dag. Rapporten avsluttes med å peke på utfordringer forfatterne mener man har i det norske kunnskaps- og innovasjonssystemet

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Correlations between Polyacetylene Concentrations in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Various Soil Parameters

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Grønnsaker, Gulrot

This study assessed the concentrations of three falcarinol-type polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3-acetate) in carrots and the correlations between these and different soil traits. A total of 144 carrot samples, from three different harvests taken a single season, were analysed in terms of their polyacetylene concentrations and root development.

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Sustainable agriculture within the Baltic Sea Region: Do policy measures respond to policy objectives?

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Gjødsel, Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

The Baltic Sea is dying. Oxygen-free bottom zones are increasing despite the binding targets of Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorous (P) reduction in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP). Nutrient runoff from agriculture is the most important source of this eutrophication. According to the EU, sustainable agriculture in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) concerns several political objectives, including reducing eutrophication by nutrient abatement measures, sustain economic viability of farms and benefit society as a whole.

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Future farmers and sustainability : a case study of newly established farmers in Southern Norway

| Type artikkel: Månedens masterMasteravhandling

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Industrialiseringen av jordbruket verden over har ført til en utvikling som ikke er bærekraftig og utfordringer i forhold til økonomisk lønnsomhet for produsenter, miljøødeleggelser og redusert livskvalitet for bønder. For å forstå hvordan nyetablerte bønder i Norge oppfatter bærekrafts problematikken og planlegger å praktisere innen økonomiske, miljømessige og sosiale aspekter, studerte jeg ti caser.

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It’s Not Always about Growth! Development Dynamics and Management in Food Businesses and Chains

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

Growing small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs) face specific challenges, especially when they aim to maintain a higher quality of products and processes. While growing, they tend to converge either towards niche markets or mainstream commodity markets, and as a result sacrifice higher quality and value. In this article, we explore the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and their related food supply chains, as well as the related challenges.

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Trender i norsk landbruk 2018 Hedmark og Oppland

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

Trender i norsk landbruk (Trendundersøkelsen) er en spørreundersøkelse blant norske gårdbrukere. Den gjennomføres av Ruralis – Institutt for rural- og regionalforskning (tidligere Norsk senter for Bygdeforskning). Undersøkelsen har vært gjennomført annethvert år siden 2002, og årets undersøkelse er den niende i rekken. Det er dermed etablert en database som gir informasjon om utviklingen innen landbruket over tid.

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Socio-cultural factors: Opportunities and challenges for crowdfunding climate measures in Norwegian agriculture

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

As part of the project COOLCROWD, this report provides an overview of preliminary findings and results from WP 2.2 about socio-cultural conditions for crowdfunding in Norway. The primary objective of the project is “to explore the potential of crowdfunding for climate-friendly agricultural projects in Norway as a novel, socio-technical practice that promotes a rapid transition to a low-emission society.”

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Growth, feed intake, methane emissions and carbon footprint from Holstein bull calves fed four different rations

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Klima og miljø, Storfe

There is a growing interest in finding feeding strategies that can decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. The aim of the study was to compare productivity, enteric methane emissions and carbon footprint per kg edible product of dairy bull calves fed one of four different rations.

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Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster this systemic shift.

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Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Potet, Produksjonsmetoder

The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems.

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Root traits and root biomass allocation impact how wheat genotypes respond to organic amendments and earthworms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Jordbiologi, Korn

Plant-soil biological interactions are increasingly recognized as a key feature of agroecosystems, promoting both crop and soil health. However, the effectiveness of plant-soil synergies is likely modulated by both root system characteristics and soil management impacts on soil biological communities.

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Spring frost risk for regional apple production under a warmer climate

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Eple, Frukt, Klima og miljø

Spring frosts, as experienced in Europe in April 2016 and 2017, pose a considerable risk to agricultural production, with the potential to cause significant damages to agricultural yields. Meteorological blocking events (stable high-pressure systems) have been shown to be one of the factors that trigger cold spells in spring. While current knowledge does not allow for drawing conclusions as to any change in future frequency and duration of blocking episodes due to climate change, the combination of their stable occurrence with the biological system under a warming trend can lead to economic damage increases.

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