Tema: Rapport

Acri-active neighbourhood : an exploration of neighbourhood cultivation through urban agriculture and development strategies

| Type artikkel: Månedens masterMasteravhandling

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Urbant landbruk

Historically food has been just as important to our cities as it has been for sustaining our individual bodies. In fact, one of the most important factors that contributed to forming early human civilization was agriculture. The domestication of plants and animals allowed our ancestors to settle in one area for a longer period of time and gradually, those static settlements became more permanent and evolved into cities, as we know them.

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It’s never too late to join the revolution! – Enabling new modes of production in the contemporary Danish food system

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økologisk landbruk, Økonomi

The Danish food system has undergone a transition in the past 10-20 years, in which new quality conventions have evolved. Examples include, increasing organic production and consumption, increasing interest in local food, experience, community, taste and gastronomy. This article explores the barriers and opportunities for enabling new modes of production in the food system.

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Influence of the development stage of perennial forage crops for the recovery yields of extractable proteins using lactic acid fermentation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Prosessering

The extraction of leaf proteins from perennial forage crops within a green biorefinery concept represents a promising approach to face the increasing demand for protein arisen in the organic farming sector to feed monogastric animals. Given the background, the present research aims at assessing the protein extractability from three plant species i.e. chicory, red clover and timothy, at different development stages and investigating lactic acid fermentation as the key method for the extraction of leaf proteins.

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Increased utilisation of renewable resources: Dilemmas for organic agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økologisk landbruk

Minimising outputs of waste and pollution by recycling and efficient utilisation of renewable resources is of common interest for organic agriculture and the concepts of circular and bioeconomy. However, in practice, many efforts to increase recycling of various biological materials in organic agriculture are hampered because standards for certified organic production and processing tend to prefer natural products while avoiding processing and especially chemical processes.

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LAnd MAnagement for CLImate Mitigation and Adaptation

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

LAMACLIMA vil undersøke hvordan arealforvaltningstiltak som reforplantning, vanning og vedhøsting vil påvirke klima, landbruk, vanntilgjengelighet, skogbruk og økonomisk produktivitet. Dette vil bli oppnådd ved å bruke en tverrfaglig tilnærming. Simuleringsresultater fra tre klimamodeller vil bli integrert i en global landbruksfordelingsmodell som vil bli koblet til en økonomisk generell likevektsmodell.

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Sustainable management of cultivated peatlands in Switzerland: Insights, challenges, and opportunities

Major common production activities on organic soils require drainage, which results in the loss of important ecosystem services such as carbon storage. This paper provides an overview of the farming situation on organic soils in a western region of Switzerland characterized by intensive vegetable farming and therefore by high opportunity costs of adopting sustainable practices on these soils.

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Bedding hygiene, cleanliness and lying behaviour for heifers housed on wood chip or straw deep bedding

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Storfe

The aim of this project was to compare the hygienic quality of the bedding, as well as the parasitic load, cleanliness and lying behaviour in heifers kept on either straw or wood chip deep bedding. Fourteen heifers kept in two pens were housed on straw or wood chip bedding for 43 days, after which the bedding material was switched for 43 additional days.

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The importance of including soil carbon changes, ecotoxicity and biodiversity impacts in environmental life cycle assessments of organic and conventional milk in Western Europe

Estimates of soil carbon changes, biodiversity and ecotoxicity have often been missing from life cycle assessment based studies of organic dairy products, despite evidence that the impacts of organic and conventional management may differ greatly within these areas. The aim of the present work was therefore to investigate the magnitude of including these impact categories within a comprehensive environmental impact assessment of organic and conventional dairy systems differing in basic production conditions.

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Klimagassutslipp ‐ planteproduksjon

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Denne rapporten er utarbeidet som del av utredningsprosjektet til Bondelaget: Utvikling av beregningsmodell for klimagasser i norsk landbruk» finansiert av Landbruksdirektoratet. Rapporten omhandler klimagasser fra planteproduksjon og gir omtale av nødvendige data for klimagassberegning. Den gir oversikt over ulike typer modeller for beregning av klimagassutslipp, fra nasjonalt rapporteringsnivå til modeller for rådgivning på gårdsnivå. Det er også gjort vurdering av forsknings og kunnskapsbehov.

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Genetic analysis of a heritage variety collection

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold

Landraces (including heritage varieties) are an important agrobiodiversity resource offering considerable value as a buffer against crop failures, as a crop for niche markets, and as a source of diversity for crop genetic improvement activities underpinning future food security. Home gardens are reservoirs of landrace diversity, but some of the accessions held in them are vulnerable or threatened with extinction. Those associated with seed saving networks have added security, for example, ca. 800 varieties are stored in the Heritage Seed Library (HSL) of Garden Organic, UK.

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Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from integrated organic farming: A systems approach considering rotation cycles

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Produksjonsmetoder, Økologisk landbruk

Integrated organic farming could help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental impacts from agriculture but studies of such practices are scarce, particularly those considering farms as whole systems and taking into account rotation cycles. To address this knowledge gap, this study considers life cycle GHG emissions and the related global warming potential (GWP) of a large integrated organic farm in the UK.

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Strategier i ekologisk produktion i Sverige för att öka resiliens mot extrem torka

The summer year 2018 was extremely hot and dry in Sweden. Pasture crops dried down and cattle had to graze in the forest or on bushed land not cultivated for a long time. The harvest was extremely low for all crops. Swedish agriculture is adapted to weather variations but due to climate change extreme weather conditions are expected to occur more frequent, such as too much or lack of rain. We have to answer question about what knowledge and measure the farmer use to handle the drought and produce crops, milk and beef.

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Perennial flower strips for pest control in organic apple orchards – A pan-European study

In many crops, the intensive use of pesticides causes major problems both for the environment and for natural ecosystem services. Apple is Europe's most frequently produced orchard fruit, requiring high pesticide input to combat the most important apple insect pests, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) and Cydia pomonella (L.).

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Design, implementation and management of perennial flower strips to promote functional agrobiodiversity in organic apple orchards: A pan-European study

Orchards, as intensive cropping systems, often have low diversity of plant species, which limits the promotion of natural enemies for pest control. The implementation of agri-environmental schemes, such as flower strips, could enhance biological control. We developed perennial, multifunctional flower strips with native plant species.

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Organisk avfall som vekstmedium og næring for solbær (Ribes nigrum L.) på intensivt grønt tak og sosiale effekter av urbant landbruk

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Bær, Klima og miljø, Kompost, Matjord, Urbant landbruk

Til urban dyrking i bykjernen er det vanlig å kjøpe jord siden jorda i byen ofte er forurenset. En sirkulær økonomi, med fokus på avfallshåndtering, er derfor en forutsetning for at urban dyrking skal være bærekraftig. Kompost utgjør i dag en stor del av innholdet i tilgjengelige torvfrie vekstmedier i Norge, men kan fortsatt by på utfordringer. Tilpasset informasjon for urban dyrking om kvalitet og bruk må derfor utvikles og formidles bredt.

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Validation of body temperature and heart rate sensors in domestic sheep

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Presisjonsjordbruk, Sau

The advantages of low input livestock production on large or unfenced pastures, including high animal welfare, positive impacts on biodiversity and low production costs may be challenged by losses due to undetected disease, accidents and predation. Precision livestock farming (PLF) systems enable remote monitoring on an individual level with the potential for predictive warning. Monitoring body temperature (Tb) and heart rate (HR) could allow for development of early warning systems for not only sickness and behavior, but also oestrus or parturition.

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Reindeer husbandry in Sápmi: How can we support a prosperous future for reindeer herding through research?

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Husdyr, Samfunnsutvikling

The Nordic Joint Committee for Agricultural and Food Research (NKJ) has commissioned Nordregio to provide an overview of research completed
within the last 10 years in the field of reindeer husbandry in the Nordic countries. This report summarises and categorises those studies that have focused on socio-economic aspects of reindeer husbandry.

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Markens potential som kolsänka

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord, Samfunnsutvikling

Att öka kolinlagringen i marken föreslås vara en av de mest kostnadseffektiva klimatåtgärderna. En åtgärd som dessutom har positiv inverkan på aspekter som biologisk mångfald och miljö. Ämnet står därför högt på agendan i de nordiska länderna och en rad olika initiativ pågår, från utveckling av beräkningsmodeller och undersökningar av olika åtgärders effekter till mer övergripande kunskapssammanställningar och politiska målformuleringar.

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Effects of three short-term pasture allocation methods on milk production, methane emission and grazing behaviour by dairy cows

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Storfe

Two short-term grazing experiments were conducted with Norwegian Red cows. In Exp 1, 24 cows were randomly assigned to one of the following three pasture allocation methods (PAM): weekly pasture allowance (7RG), grazing 1/7 of 7RG each day (1SG), or grazing as 1SG but had access to grazed part of the paddock within one week (1FG).

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A regional approach to Nordic crop wild relative in situ conservation planning

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Genetikk og plantearv

Crop wild relatives (CWR) can provide one solution to future challenges on food security, sustainable agriculture and adaptation to climate change. Diversity found in CWR can be essential for adapting crops to these new demands. Since the need to improve in situ conservation of CWR has been recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2010) and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (2011–2020), it is important to develop ways to safeguard these important genetic resources.

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Filtreringsmetoder för utvinning av växtproteiner avsedda för morgongadens produktion av livsmedel

| Type artikkel: Forskningsprosjekt

Kategori: Planteproteiner, Prosessering, Samfunnsutvikling

We are facing a protein shift in which a portion of the animal based protein in our diet needs to be replaced by plant proteins to reduce the climate impact from the food sector. Many agricultural by-streams contain high value proteins not used to their full potential. We aim to recover proteins from by-streams from rapeseed oil production and quinoa starch isolation by membrane technology to recover and concentrate proteins, and reduce unwanted compounds in a cost efficient way.

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Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science – Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Klima og miljø

Nature and its vital contributions to people, which together embody biodiversity and ecosystem functions and services, are deteriorating worldwide. Nature embodies different concepts for different people, including biodiversity, ecosystems, Mother Earth, systems of life and other analogous concepts. Nature’s contributions to people embody different concepts such as ecosystem goods and services, and nature’s gifts. Both nature and nature’s contributions to people are vital for human existence and good quality of life (human well-being, living in harmony with nature, living well in balance and harmony with Mother Earth, and other analogous concepts).

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Separasjon av ku og kalv

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Melk, Storfe, Økologisk landbruk

I konvensjonell melkeproduksjon er det ingen krav om at ku og kalv skal være sammen, og tradisjonelt blir ku og kalv separert umiddelbart eller kort tid etter fødsel. I økologisk melkeproduksjon skal kalven die kua i minst tre dager, og den skal ha naturlig melk i minst tre måneder. Forbrukerne er stadig mer opptatt av dyrevelferd, og det er et økende fokus på det å ha ku og kalv sammen lenger i melkeproduksjon.

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FUTURE NORDIC DIETS

The global food system causes large emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the environment. Livestock are responsible for a large part of these emissions and take up most of the agricultural land for grazing and feed production while only making a more limited contribution to the global food supply. In this project, we have used an agricultural mass flow model to assess two future food system scenarios for the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (hereafter “the Nordic countries”).

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Final report for the CORE Organic Plus funded project “Innovative design and management to boost functional biodiversity of organic orchards EcoOrchard”

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Eple, Frukt, Økologisk landbruk

Orchards are perennial cultures, and especially in organic fruit production it is essential to design and manage orchards in a way which favours predators and parasitoids over pests. Increasing plant biodiversity and habitats in such a way that beneficials are favoured is called Functional (Agro-)Biodiversity (FAB). The value of FAB for reducing pesticide use in fruit production is generally acknowledged, and many organic fruit growers try to increase it in spite of a shortage of information on FAB, economical and technical challenges and lack of situation-specific, detailed advice.

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Approaches to embed diversity in food systems – Diversfood outcomes from field to plate

Underutilised crops are offering opportunities to diversify and improve farming and food systems as a response both to climate change and to social changes in food culture and uses. The choice of seed greatly determines farming practices and all stages of the food supply chain right up to the consumers’ plate.

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Kvalitetskorn til mat – muligheter i ikke- kommersialisert norsk sortsmateriale

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Korn, Økologisk landbruk

25 sorter og foredlingslinjer av vårhvete ble sammenliknet i feltforsøk på to lokaliteter i Nord-Trøndelag i 2017 og 2018, med økologiske dyrkingsbetingelser. Utvalget inneholdt sorter som er i bruk i økologisk dyrking til håndverksbaking i Trøndelag (Dala landhvete, Fram II), enkelte andre eldre norske sorter (Norrøna, Møystad, Runar), to svenske sorter med litt annen glutenkvalitet enn moderne norsk hvete (Polkka, Sport), og Mirakel og Seniorita som var vanlige handelssorter i Norge i 2017 og 2018.

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Links between profitability, nitrogen surplus, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy intensity on organic and conventional dairy farms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Melk, Storfe, Økologisk landbruk, Økonomi

This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, on-farm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ.

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Sortsforsøk i erter og åkerbønne

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Belgvekster, Matplanter, Planteproteiner

Erter og åkerbønner som har blitt dyrket i Norge, har i all hovedsak blitt brukt i kraftfôr, og kraftfôr-industrien signaliserer at de de ønsker større produksjon. Samtidig er forbrukerne blitt mer opptatt av planteprotein til mat, og en ser nå mange produkter i butikkene som er basert på erter, bønner eller soya. De fleste av disse produktene er basert på importerte råvarer, men forbrukere foretrekker norske produkter.

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Consumer Readiness to Reduce Meat Consumption for the Purpose of Environmental Sustainability: Insights from Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Planteproteiner, Samfunnsutvikling

Food production is associated with various environmental impacts and the production of meat is highlighted as a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. A transition toward plant-based and low-meat diets has thus been emphasised as an important contribution to reducing climate change. By combining results from a consumer survey, focus group interviews and an in-store field experiment, this article investigates whether Norwegian consumers are ready to make food choices based on what is environmentally sustainable.

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Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Erosjon, Humus, Jordbiologi, Jordpakking, Jordvern, Klima og miljø, Matjord

2015 was the United Nations International Year of Soils and, for the first time, soils and the life within them were in the spotlight globally. We are pleased therefore, that an international group of experts and scientists from the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), in close collaboration with colleagues from the Commission’s Directorate-General for the Environment and the Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative, have produced the first ever Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects.

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Å ta i bruk kunnskapens tre – Frå organisatorisk til dyrkingsteknisk innovasjon i fruktnæringa i Hardanger og Sør-Tyrol

Denne oppgåva handlar om korleis innovasjonar skjer i fruktnæringa i Hardanger og Sør-Tyrol (Italia). Denne problemstillinga vert gripe an gjennom fire underspørsmål: Korleis vart fruktnæringa den dominerande jordbruksnæringa i desse områda? Korleis har forholdet mellom produksjonssystem, salssystem og kunnskapsinfrastruktur utvikla seg over tid? Korleis står denne utviklinga i forhold til utviklinga i næringa som heilskap? Korleis vert kunnskap utanfrå henta inn og gjort nyttig lokalt?

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Beitemarka – et ukjent karbonlager

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Husdyr, Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø

Husdyrbruk vil fortsatt være viktig framover for å imøtekomme økende etterspørsel etter matvarer i en tid da klimaendringene truer matproduksjonen over store deler av verden (NOU, 2018:17). Beite holder landskapet åpent og bidrar til å opprettholde verdifullt biologisk mangfold på naturbeitemark. Samtidig som husdyra og husdyrproduksjonen bidrar til utslipp av klimagasser, bidrar de gjennom beite også til opptak og lagring av klimagasser (Teague, mfl., 2016).

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Persistence in soil of Miscanthus biochar in laboratory and field conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biokull, Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord

Evaluating biochars for their persistence in soil under field conditions is an important step towards their implementation for carbon sequestration. Current evaluations might be biased because the vast majority of studies are short-term laboratory incubations of biochars produced in laboratory-scale pyrolyzers.

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Karbonbinding i norsk landbruksjord – En vurdering av hvordan nåværende praksis på dyrket mark kan tilpasses for å øke karbonbinding i norsk landbruksjord .

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk

Landbruket er en viktig del av karbonkretsløpet. FAO har anslått at hvis landbruket globalt tar i bruk kjent karbon-bindende jordbrukspraksis, som vekstskifte med eng, erstatter åpenåker med jorddekke og underkultur osv., er det mulig å binde tilstrekkelig karbon til å snu økningen av CO2 i luft og reversere klimaendringene. Karbonbinding i jord er et viktig bidrag til å holde jordens temperaturøkning til under 2°C (Lal. R. 2013. Ghabbour, E. m. fl. 2017).

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Urban Agriculture: A Regenerative Urban Development Practice to Decrease the Ecological Footprints of Cities

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk, Urbant landbruk

Modern cities are characterized by intense human interactions and economic activities that- in many cases- have little or no consideration of the surrounding environment. Every day, the process of urbanisation is becoming more resource-intensive, and the results are grave, including, climate change, the loss of natural fertility of farmland and the loss of biodiversity all over the world.

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Towards resilient agriculture and beyond – The promise of regenerative agriculture

| Type artikkel: Masteravhandling

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk

We are all dependent on agriculture as we all need food and agriculture covers around 37% of the total land area. It would therefore be an understatement to say that it is an important subject for our common future. A subject however that is also facing and causing many challenges. Is agriculture able to fit into the people, planet, prosperity adagio, or does one of these always have to suffer like it currently does?

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Agroforestry Standards for Regenerative Agriculture

Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices.


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Jordhelse, karbon og regenerativt landbruk – for bønder, av ein bonde

Etter 20 års erfaring som konvensjonell kornbonde og deretter 7 år som økologisk kornbonde ble jeg i 2015 gjort oppmerksom på ein youtubevideo av Gabe Brown. Den videoen satte meg nesten helt ut pga. at jeg skjønna hvor lite jeg egentlig forstod om jord, og hvilken effekt jordhelsa kan ha på plantevekst. Det er 4 år siden jeg kom over dette med regenerativt landbruk og i perioder har jeg brukt store deler av fritida mi på å lese mer om dette for å lære og forstå. Jeg har her prøvd å lage ei lita konsentrert samling av hovedpunkta av det jeg har lest i artikler og bøker og hørt/sett på youtube om jordhelse, hvorfor og hvordan.

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Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of digestates from three green manures

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Gjødsel, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Green manure mixtures including legumes and forbs can help to increase N availability in organic arable systems. Anaerobic digestion of green manures may provide ammonium rich digestate, which can be redistributed as fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant species composition, cutting strategy and anaerobic digestion on the N fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of different green manures.

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Rotogräsens När Var Hur – En guide till icke-kemisk bekämpning av perenna ogräs

Kvickrot, åkertistel och tussilago! Det var det vanligaste svaret Per Bohlin fick på sin fråga om vil­ka ogräs som är svårast att kontrollera. Han var över­assistent på Centralanstalten för försöksväsendet på jordbruksområdet, och frågan ställdes i en enkät som sändes ut till framträdande lantbrukare i varje svensk socken år 1921. Möjligen bortsett från tussilagon är det ett svar som fortfarande har sin giltighet, framför­ allt inom ekologisk odling.

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A long-term field experiment demonstrates the influence of tillage on the bacterial potential to produce soil structure-stabilizing agents such as exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

Background
Stable soil aggregates are essential for optimal crop growth and preventing soil erosion. However, tillage is often used in agriculture to loosen the soil, which disrupts the integrity of these aggregates. Soil aggregation can be enhanced by bacteria through their ability to produce exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides. These compounds stabilize soil aggregates by “gluing” soil particles together.

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Abating N in Nordic agriculture – Policy, measures and way forward

During the past twenty years, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) have introduced a range of measures to reduce losses of nitrogen (N) to air and to aquatic environment by leaching and runoff. However, the agricultural sector is still an important N source to the environment, and projections indicate relatively small emission reductions in the coming years.

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Muligheter og utfordringer for økt karbonbinding i jordbruksjord

En økning i karbonlagring i landbruksjord er angitt som et viktig klimatiltak både internasjonalt og i Norge. Tiltaket er godt begrunnet: Jorden inneholder to til tre ganger så mye karbon som atmosfæren, noe som innebærer at relative små endringer i innhold av karbon i jord kan ha betydelige effekter på CO2-innholdet i atmosfæren og det globale klimaet.

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