Type Artikkel: Publisert studie


Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Organic farming systems need to replace nutrients exported via farm products, especially phosphorus (P) which may otherwise become depleted in soil in the long term. In Europe, EU regulations for organic production are shaping the farming systems with respect to inputs of nutrients. Permitted off-farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal.

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Phosphorus availability on many organically managed farms in Europe

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Maintaining sufficient soil phosphorus (P) levels for non-limiting crop growth is challenging in organic systems since off-farm inputs of P are restricted. This study assessed the status of P on organic farms in Europe using soil test results for extractable P. Data was obtained from published literature, unpublished theses, and various national and regional databases of soil test values.

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Controlled traffic farming effects on soil emissions of nitrous oxide and methane

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Produksjonsmetoder

Soil compaction affects soil aeration and gas diffusivity, and thus has a major impact on the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from fertilised soils. Controlled traffic farming (CTF) systems reduce the area of compacted soil by confining all field traffic to permanent traffic lanes, and a pilot trial at one long-term CTF site provided evidence of reduced soil emissions.

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Resilience of bacteria, archaea, fungi and N-cycling microbial guilds under plough and conservation tillage, to agricultural drought

Climate change causes droughts, which in turn cause significant physiological stress for soil microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how the abundance of total bacterial, crenarchaeal and fungal communities and the abundance of N-cycling microbial guilds responded to a severe agricultural drought event in a long-term experiment of minimum tillage (MT) and conventional ploughing (CT) at two soil depths.

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Active Packaging Applications for Food

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Emballasje, Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The traditional role of food packaging is continuing to evolve in response to changing market needs. Current drivers such as consumer's demand for safer, “healthier,” and higher‐quality foods, ideally with a long shelf‐life; the demand for convenient and transparent packaging, and the preference for more sustainable packaging materials, have led to the development of new packaging technologies, such as active packaging (AP).

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Fine-Tuning the Fight Against Food Waste

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The complex causes of consumer food waste make it difficult for commercial actors and public policy makers to develop successful foodwaste reduction campaigns. One of the essential problems is that consumer food waste seems to be the unplanned result of divergent food-related behaviors. The current research investigates the relationship between distinctive consumer food-related lifestyle patterns and food waste.

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Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Karbon og karbonlagring, Matjord

The effects of organic versus conventional farming systems on changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) has long been debated. The effects of such comparisons may depend considerably on the design of the respective systems and climate and soil conditions under which they are performed. Here, we compare a range of arable organic and conventional crop systems at three sites (Jyndevad, Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in Denmark through long-term experiments initiated in 1997.

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Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming

1. Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role.

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Citizen and consumer evaluation of organic food and farming in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Folkehelse

In this paper, we examine citizen and consumer attitudes towards, and preferences for, private and public goods from organic agriculture in Norway. The study is based on a survey among 939 Norwegians. The results show that in the role as citizens, the respondents hold a moderate belief in the superiority of organic farming concerning the production of public goods, but they give relatively low priority to prompting organic farming compared to other agricultural policy goals.

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Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees

Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review.

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Økologisk landbruk

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low
pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing
yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context.

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Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Food’s environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities.

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Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields.

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Targeting critical source areas for phosphorus losses: Evaluation with soil testing, farmers’ assessment and modelling

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Klima og miljø, Næringsstoffer

Diffuse phosphorus (P) losses from arable land need to be reduced in a cost-efficient way, taking into account their temporal and spatial variability. This study, based on 16 farms across southern Sweden, examined possibilities for identifying critical source areas for P losses based on the combined results of high-resolution erosion modelling, independent risk assessments by farmers, soil survey and SWOT analysis performed by farmers.

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Crop management affects pollinator attractiveness and visitation in oilseed rape

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Ecological intensification of agriculture implies managing ecological processes to improve performance of agricultural systems. However, impacts on relevant ecological functions such as insect pollination from other crop management factors are poorly explored. Pest insects and crop resources such as water availability can directly affect crop yields, but it is unknown if there are indirect effects through effects on insect pollination.

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Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed.

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Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach.

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Ecosystem services across the aquatic–terrestrial boundary: Linking ponds to pollination

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Many small farmland ponds are built for nutrient retention, the conservation of biodiversity or both, yet they are relatively neglected habitats. For example, little is known about the potential for ponds to influence populations of beneficial terrestrial insects, deliver ecosystem services across the aquatic–terrestrial boundary and affect crop yield in insect-pollinated cash crops.

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A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Produksjonsmetoder

Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems. What remains unclear is the extent to which farm management schemes affect biodiversity components other than species richness, and whether impacts differ across spatial scales and landscape contexts.

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Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination.

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Contribution of insect pollinators to crop yield and quality varies with agricultural intensification

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Up to 75% of crop species benefit at least to some degree from animal pollination for fruit or seed set and yield. However, basic information on the level of pollinator dependence and pollinator contribution to yield is lacking for many crops. Even less is known about how insect pollination affects crop quality. Given that habitat loss and agricultural intensification are known to decrease pollinator richness and abundance, there is a need to assess the consequences for different components of crop production.


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Local resources, linear elements and mass-flowering crops determine bumblebee occurrences in moderately intensified farmlands

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

There is consensus that land-use change is a main driver behind the recent declines of many pollinator populations in Europe. However, it is still not adequately understood how the local resource quality and landscape composition influence pollinators, and if and how the effects vary in space and time.

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Environmental impacts of combined milk and meat production in Norway according to a life cycle assessment with expanded system boundaries

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Kjøtt, Klima og miljø, Melk

The environmental burdens from combined milk and meat production in Norway have been studied. A model of three typical farms was constructed to represent the three most important regions for dairy production in Norway (central, central southeast and southwest). Processes from cradle to farm gate were covered in the assessment, including all activities on the farm, along with the production of machinery, equipment, buildings, diesel, oil, fertilizer, lime, seeds, pesticides, detergents, plastic, silage additive, medicines and related transport. The results were given for the impact categories global warming potential (GWP), fossil depletion, freshwater ecotoxicity, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, marine eutrophication, ozone depletion, agricultural land occupation, photochemical oxidant formation, terrestrial acidification and terrestrial ecotoxicity.


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The quality of leguminous vegetables as influenced by preharvest factors

The cultivation of most legumes, aims to the production of either dry seeds consumed by humans, also known as pulses, or animal fodder. However, some legumes are cultivated for fresh consumption either as pods or as immature seeds. The economically most important legumes consumed as vegetables are green pods of common bean, cowpea, faba bean, snow pea (mangetout) and green pea seeds. As a rule, the legume vegetables are consumed after cooking and in many countries, they may be used to cover primary nutritional needs, because their protein content is high in comparison with most other vegetables.

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Could the artificial inoculation of AM fungi improve the benefits of using pea (Pissum sativum L) plants for soil amendment purposes in greenhouses?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Belgvekster, Grønnsaker, Matjord, Matplanter, Sopp

The study aimed to investigate the effects of commercially available AMF inoculate (Glomus sp. mixture) on the growth and the nutrient acquisition of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants. Inoculated (AMF+) and non-inoculated (AMF-) pea plants were subjected to two levels of NaCl salinity (0 and 50 mM NaCl). Several times during the growing cycle, randomly selected plants were analyzed for dry matter of roots and the aboveground biomass. Plant tissue samples were analyzed for N, P and K concentration and the total uptake, specific absorption rate (SAR) and specific utilization rate (SUR) of these elements were calculated.

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Suppression of the activity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by the soil microbiota

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Jordbiologi, Matjord, Sopp

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonise roots of most plants; their extra-radical mycelium (ERM) extends into the soil and acquires nutrients for the plant. The ERM coexists with soil microbial communities and it is unresolved whether these communities stimulate or suppress the ERM activity. This work studied the prevalence of suppressed ERM activity and identified main components behind the suppression.

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Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Økologisk landbruk

This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed from organic or conventional production impacts in different ways on growth and development.

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Prospective association between consumption frequency of organic food and body weight change, risk of overweight or obesity: results from the NutriNet-Santé Study

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse

A lower BMI has been reported among consumers of organic foods, but this relationship has never been examined in a prospective design study. Our aim was to prospectively investigate the association between frequency of organic food consumption and weight change. We analysed data from 62 224 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort (78 % women, mean age = 45 years) with information on consumption frequency of organic foods, dietary intake and repeated anthropometric data.

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Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a participatory action research project in Sweden

To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative.

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Strategies for feeding the world more sustainably with organic agriculture

Organic agriculture is proposed as a promising approach to achieving sustainable food systems, but its feasibility is also contested. We use a food systems model that addresses agronomic characteristics of organic agriculture to analyze the role that organic agriculture could play in sustainable food systems.

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Control of growth cessation and floral initiation in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars of diverse origin in controlled and natural environments

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Bær, Matplanter

The aim of the investigation was to assess and compare the environmental limits for growth cessation and floral initiation in a range of new and established biennial-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars of diverse origin under phytotron and field conditions.

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The challenge of imbalanced nutrient flows in organic farming systems: A study of organic greenhouses in Southern Germany

Organic greenhouse vegetable production is characterized by very high nutrient demands within short growing periods and high nutrient exports via products sold. Therefore, meeting crop nutrient demands and maintaining long-term sustainability in these systems is highly challenging. To gain insight in current practices this study assessed fertilization strategies and nutrient flows of ten organic horticultural farms (22 greenhouses and polytunnels) in Southwest Germany belonging to the two organic farming associations Bioland and Demeter (biodynamic) for a cropping period of three years.

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Effect of biodynamic preparations on the phenolic antioxidants in potatoes with coloured-flesh

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Grønnsaker, Matplanter, Næringsstoffer, Potet

The aim of this research, which was undertaken in two years (2013–2014), was to evaluate the effect of cultivars and biodynamic (BD) preparations 500 and 501 on concentrations of phenolic compounds, quantitative and qualitative anthocyanins and phenolic acids compositions, and antioxidant activity in the tubers of coloured potatoes.

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Organic farming enhances soil microbial abundance and activity—A meta-analysis and meta-regression

Population growth and climate change challenge our food and farming systems and provide arguments for an increased intensification of agriculture. A promising option is eco-functional intensification through organic farming, an approach based on using and enhancing internal natural resources and processes to secure and improve agricultural productivity, while minimizing negative environmental impacts.


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Cover crops influence soil properties and tree performance in an organic apple (Malus domestica Borkh) orchard in northern Patagonia

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Eple, Erosjon, Frukt, Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Matplanter

Little is known about the effects of cover crops on soil properties in organic orchards. To fill this gap, this work aimed at examining the effects of several cover crops on soil fertility, nitrate dynamics, populations of nematodes and tree performance in an organic orchard of apple cv. Royal Gala/EM 26 planted in 1994 at 4 × 2 m.

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Do managed bees have negative effects on wild bees?: A systematic review of the literature

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Managed bees are critical for crop pollination worldwide. As the demand for pollinator-dependent crops increases, so does the use of managed bees. Concern has arisen that managed bees may have unintended negative impacts on native wild bees, which are important pollinators in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

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Local setting influences the quantity of household food waste in mid-sized South African towns

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The world faces a food security challenge with approximately 868 million people undernourished and about two billion people suffering from the negative health consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. Yet, it is believed that at least 33% of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted along the food chain.

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High-fiber rapeseed co-product diet for Norwegian Landrace pigs: Effect on digestibility

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gris, Husdyr, Kjøtt

The effect of partially replacing soybean meal (SBM) and wheat with high-fiber rapeseed (RS) co-products on the nutrient and energy digestibility of 40 Norwegian Landrace pigs (17.8 ± 2.7 kg initial BW) was investigated. Pigs were fed a pelleted diet containing 200 g/kg of a coarse fraction of air-classified rapeseed meal (RSM) and 40 g/kg of RS hulls or a SBM control diet (20 pigs/dietary treatment) for 3 wk to estimate apparent ileal (AID) or total tract (ATTD) digestibility of energy and nutrients, organ weight, intestinal histomorphology, and digestive enzyme activities of individual pigs.

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Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

The 13th edition of the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture includes 14 articles of EUROLEGUME's scientific research in its 'In Focus' section.
In addition to the 14 articles, the 'In Focus' starts off with an editorial on 'Enhancing legume growing through sustainable cropping for protein supply' and a review on 'Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment'.

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Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing.

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Proximal Soil Sensing – A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord

Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS) provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils.


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Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment

The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop.

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