Type Artikkel: Publisert studie

Maladaptation in Nordic agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

Climatic changes are expected to pose challenges to Nordic agriculture. While some changes may provide opportunities for higher productivity, others may severely increase agricultural vulnerability. Farmers attempt to adapt or cope with these changes by taking measures to decrease vulnerability or to take advantage of potential benefits, but little is known what outcomes these adaptation measures might have.

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The political robot – The structural consequences of automated milking systems (AMS) in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Melk, Robotisering, Samfunnsutvikling

In this article, the aim is to explore how social aspects of the adoption and expansion of milking robots in Norwegian dairy farming are related to the political and structural changes in the sector. To explore the relationship between the implementation of automated milking systems (AMS) and structural developments, we used a qualitative methodology building on data from interviews with farmers, policy documents, statistics, and secondary literature.

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Making occupational health and safety training relevant for farmers: Evaluation of an introductory course in occupational health and safety in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse

Agriculture is a hazardous industry, with a high frequency of injuries. As agriculture is an industry mostly consisting of small enterprises, it may be difficult to prevent injuries. In Norway, an OHS course is available for farmers. This study aims to evaluate this course. The evaluation is a prospective exploratory case study evaluation using qualitative interviews.

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Resilience in Mountain Farming in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

The concept of socio-ecological farm resilience is used to understand how farmers manoeuvre in a context of change, what choices and priorities they make, and how that subsequently influences the development of the farming landscape. The author uses farm resilience, the capabilities of buffering, adaptation and transformation, and the response of bouncing back or forward as a conceptual frame in a study of farmers in a mountain community in Norway.

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Biochar farming: defining economically perspective applications

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biokull, Økonomi

Biochar refers to the high-carbon, black fine-grained product of biomass pyrolysis. Independent studies repeatedly confirmed that its incorporation into arable land is a reliable carbon sequestration method that significantly improves soil quality. The latest development leads to a reduction in the production cost (− 10 to 30 USD t−1); however, the use of biochar in commercial agriculture remains scarce.

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Properties of biochar

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biokull

Biochar can be used in a large number of applications, ranging from heat and power production to soil amendment. The properties of carbonized biomass depend on the feedstock and the process conditions. Selection of suitable conditions to produce a char with the desired properties therefore requires knowledge of dependencies and influencing factors, both quantitatively and qualitatively.

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Biochar reduces volatile organic compounds generated during chicken manure composting

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biokull

The efficiency of biochar for reducing the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) was investigated in a composting mixture containing 90% poultry manure and 10% straw (with and without 3% biochar addition) at three different stages of the process. The use of a low application rate of biochar reduced the concentration of VOC during the thermophilic phase.

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Meat Reduction by Force: The Case of “Meatless Monday” in the Norwegian Armed Forces

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Kjøtt

Despite the scientific evidence that more plants and less animal-based food is more sustainable, policy interventions to reduce meat consumption are scarce. However, campaigns for meat free days in school and office canteens have spread globally over the last years. In this paper, we look at the Norwegian Armed Forces’ attempt to introduce the Meatless Monday campaign in their camps, and we evaluate the implementation process as well as the effect of the campaign on soldiers.

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The impact of long-term organic farming on soil-derived greenhouse gas emissions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økologisk landbruk

Agricultural practices contribute considerably to emissions of greenhouse gases. So far, knowledge on the impact of organic compared to non-organic farming on soil-derived nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions is limited. We investigated N2O and CH4 fluxes with manual chambers during 571 days in a grass-clover– silage maize – green manure cropping sequence in the long-term field trial “DOK” in Switzerland.

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The Exceptional 2018 European Water Seesaw Calls for Action on Adaptation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Temperature and precipitation are the most important factors responsible for agricultural productivity variations. In 2018 spring/summer growing season, Europe experienced concurrent anomalies of both. Drought conditions in central and northern Europe caused yield reductions up to 50% for the main crops, yet wet conditions in southern Europe saw yield gains up to 34%, both with respect to the previous 5‐year mean.

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Ambivalence and Contradictions: A Case from Mountain Agricultural Landscape Conservation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

Loss of biodiversity stands out as a serious environmental challenge worldwide. Old mountain farmland is unique in this respect, as animal husbandry with summer grazing has created a rich ecosystem. Mountain farming usually takes place in relatively remote areas with scattered populations and marginal food production in terms of quantity.

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The effect of soil on human health: an overview

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Matjord

Soil has a considerable effect on human health, whether those effects are positive or negative, direct or indirect. Soil is an important source of nutrients in our food supply and medicines such as antibiotics. However, nutrient imbalances and the presence of human pathogens in the soil biological community can cause negative effects on health.

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Impacts of biodegradable plastic mulches on soil health

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Plastic pollution in agricultural soils, caused by the incomplete removal of polyethylene mulch after usage, is a growing environmental concern. There has therefore been increased interest in biodegradable plastic mulches as alternative to polyethylene mulch; however, little is known about their impact on soil health. We evaluated the effects of four biodegradable plastic mulches on soil health at two sites (Knoxville, TN and Mount Vernon, WA) under pie pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) production.

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Regenerative agriculture: merging farming and natural resource conservation profitably

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk

Most cropland in the United States is characterized by large monocultures, whose productivity is maintained through a strong reliance on costly tillage, external fertilizers, and pesticides (Schipanski et al., 2016). Despite this, farmers have developed a regenerative model of farm production that promotes soil health and biodiversity, while producing nutrient-dense farm products profitably.

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Soil health assessment: A critical review of current methodologies and a proposed new approach

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Regenerativt landbruk

The wellbeing of soils is crucial for securing food production worldwide. The soil health (SH) concept has been introduced due to an evolving understanding that soil is not just a growing medium for crops but that it provides a foundation for other essential ecosystem services (ES). The SH concept requires development of a holistic index for reliable and quantitative assessment of soil wellbeing related to the effects of different soil management practices and land uses.

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Managing soil fertility and health for quinoa production and weed control in organic systems

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matplanter, Samplanting, Økologisk landbruk

Quinoa (Chenpodium quinoa Willd.) could provide a high value crop for organic cropping systems in the Intermountain Western US. This study evaluated quinoa in three cover cropping systems [strip crop (SC), undersown clover (UC), or winter cover crop and tillage (T)] with and without compost (+C or −C) in a split-plot with blocks design.

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Climate change has likely already affected global food production

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Crop yields are projected to decrease under future climate conditions, and recent research suggests that yields have already been impacted. However, current impacts on a diversity of crops subnationally and implications for food security remains unclear. Here, we constructed linear regression relationships using weather and reported crop data to assess the potential impact of observed climate change on the yields of the top ten global crops–barley, cassava, maize, oil palm, rapeseed, rice, sorghum, soybean, sugarcane and wheat at ~20,000 political units.

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Towards pesticide-free farming? Sharing needs and knowledge promotes Integrated Pest Management

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Plantevern og plantehelse

The overuse of chemical pesticides led to the fast-growing development of resistance in targeted insect pests, as well as to severe effects on non-target organisms and human health as well (Desneux et al. 2007; Benelli 2015, 2018a,b; Naqqash et al. 2016; Pavela and Benelli 2016; Guedes et al. 2016). In plant protection, a number of eco-friendly methods to manage insect pest populations have been developed with the aim to reduce the employ of synthetic pesticides (Gut et al. 2004; Millar 2007; Welter et al. 2005; Witzgall et al. 2010; Brockerhoff et al. 2012; Daane et al. 2012; Miller and Gut 2015).

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Organic farming positively affects honeybee colonies in a flower‐poor period in agricultural landscapes

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Pollinerende insekter, Økologisk landbruk

1. Conventional farming has been implicated in global biodiversity and pollinator declines and organic farming is often regarded as a more ecological alternative. However, the effects of organic farming on honeybees remain elusive, despite honeybees’ importance as pollinators of crops and wild plants.

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A global synthesis of the effects of diversified farming systems on arthropod diversity within fields and across agricultural landscapes

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Produksjonsmetoder, Økologisk landbruk

Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, which can reduce the provisioning of ecosystem services in managed ecosystems. Organic farming and plant diversification are farm management schemes that may mitigate potential ecological harm by increasing species richness and boosting related ecosystem services to agroecosystems.

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Direct and indirect effects of urban gardening on aboveground and belowground diversity influencing soil multifunctionality

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Urbant landbruk

Urban gardens are popular green spaces that have the potential to provide essential ecosystem services, support human well-being, and at the same time foster biodiversity in cities. We investigated the impact of gardening activities on five soil functions and the relationship between plant (600 spp.) and soil fauna (earthworms: 18 spp., springtails: 39 spp.) in 85 urban gardens (170 sites) across the city of Zurich (Switzerland).

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Reviews and syntheses: Review of causes and sources of N2O emissions and NO3 leaching from organic arable crop rotations

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økologisk landbruk

The emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and leaching of nitrate (NO3) from agricultural cropping systems have considerable negative impacts on climate and the environment. Although these environmental burdens are less per unit area in organic than in non-organic production on average, they are roughly similar per unit of product. If organic farming is to maintain its goal of being environmentally friendly, these loadings must be addressed.

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It’s never too late to join the revolution! – Enabling new modes of production in the contemporary Danish food system

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økologisk landbruk, Økonomi

The Danish food system has undergone a transition in the past 10-20 years, in which new quality conventions have evolved. Examples include, increasing organic production and consumption, increasing interest in local food, experience, community, taste and gastronomy. This article explores the barriers and opportunities for enabling new modes of production in the food system.

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Influence of the development stage of perennial forage crops for the recovery yields of extractable proteins using lactic acid fermentation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Prosessering

The extraction of leaf proteins from perennial forage crops within a green biorefinery concept represents a promising approach to face the increasing demand for protein arisen in the organic farming sector to feed monogastric animals. Given the background, the present research aims at assessing the protein extractability from three plant species i.e. chicory, red clover and timothy, at different development stages and investigating lactic acid fermentation as the key method for the extraction of leaf proteins.

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Increased utilisation of renewable resources: Dilemmas for organic agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økologisk landbruk

Minimising outputs of waste and pollution by recycling and efficient utilisation of renewable resources is of common interest for organic agriculture and the concepts of circular and bioeconomy. However, in practice, many efforts to increase recycling of various biological materials in organic agriculture are hampered because standards for certified organic production and processing tend to prefer natural products while avoiding processing and especially chemical processes.

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Sustainable management of cultivated peatlands in Switzerland: Insights, challenges, and opportunities

Major common production activities on organic soils require drainage, which results in the loss of important ecosystem services such as carbon storage. This paper provides an overview of the farming situation on organic soils in a western region of Switzerland characterized by intensive vegetable farming and therefore by high opportunity costs of adopting sustainable practices on these soils.

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Bedding hygiene, cleanliness and lying behaviour for heifers housed on wood chip or straw deep bedding

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Storfe

The aim of this project was to compare the hygienic quality of the bedding, as well as the parasitic load, cleanliness and lying behaviour in heifers kept on either straw or wood chip deep bedding. Fourteen heifers kept in two pens were housed on straw or wood chip bedding for 43 days, after which the bedding material was switched for 43 additional days.

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The importance of including soil carbon changes, ecotoxicity and biodiversity impacts in environmental life cycle assessments of organic and conventional milk in Western Europe

Estimates of soil carbon changes, biodiversity and ecotoxicity have often been missing from life cycle assessment based studies of organic dairy products, despite evidence that the impacts of organic and conventional management may differ greatly within these areas. The aim of the present work was therefore to investigate the magnitude of including these impact categories within a comprehensive environmental impact assessment of organic and conventional dairy systems differing in basic production conditions.

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Genetic analysis of a heritage variety collection

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold

Landraces (including heritage varieties) are an important agrobiodiversity resource offering considerable value as a buffer against crop failures, as a crop for niche markets, and as a source of diversity for crop genetic improvement activities underpinning future food security. Home gardens are reservoirs of landrace diversity, but some of the accessions held in them are vulnerable or threatened with extinction. Those associated with seed saving networks have added security, for example, ca. 800 varieties are stored in the Heritage Seed Library (HSL) of Garden Organic, UK.

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Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from integrated organic farming: A systems approach considering rotation cycles

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Produksjonsmetoder, Økologisk landbruk

Integrated organic farming could help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental impacts from agriculture but studies of such practices are scarce, particularly those considering farms as whole systems and taking into account rotation cycles. To address this knowledge gap, this study considers life cycle GHG emissions and the related global warming potential (GWP) of a large integrated organic farm in the UK.

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Perennial flower strips for pest control in organic apple orchards – A pan-European study

In many crops, the intensive use of pesticides causes major problems both for the environment and for natural ecosystem services. Apple is Europe's most frequently produced orchard fruit, requiring high pesticide input to combat the most important apple insect pests, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) and Cydia pomonella (L.).

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Design, implementation and management of perennial flower strips to promote functional agrobiodiversity in organic apple orchards: A pan-European study

Orchards, as intensive cropping systems, often have low diversity of plant species, which limits the promotion of natural enemies for pest control. The implementation of agri-environmental schemes, such as flower strips, could enhance biological control. We developed perennial, multifunctional flower strips with native plant species.

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Validation of body temperature and heart rate sensors in domestic sheep

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Presisjonsjordbruk, Sau

The advantages of low input livestock production on large or unfenced pastures, including high animal welfare, positive impacts on biodiversity and low production costs may be challenged by losses due to undetected disease, accidents and predation. Precision livestock farming (PLF) systems enable remote monitoring on an individual level with the potential for predictive warning. Monitoring body temperature (Tb) and heart rate (HR) could allow for development of early warning systems for not only sickness and behavior, but also oestrus or parturition.

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Effects of three short-term pasture allocation methods on milk production, methane emission and grazing behaviour by dairy cows

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Storfe

Two short-term grazing experiments were conducted with Norwegian Red cows. In Exp 1, 24 cows were randomly assigned to one of the following three pasture allocation methods (PAM): weekly pasture allowance (7RG), grazing 1/7 of 7RG each day (1SG), or grazing as 1SG but had access to grazed part of the paddock within one week (1FG).

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A regional approach to Nordic crop wild relative in situ conservation planning

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Genetikk og plantearv

Crop wild relatives (CWR) can provide one solution to future challenges on food security, sustainable agriculture and adaptation to climate change. Diversity found in CWR can be essential for adapting crops to these new demands. Since the need to improve in situ conservation of CWR has been recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2010) and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (2011–2020), it is important to develop ways to safeguard these important genetic resources.

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Links between profitability, nitrogen surplus, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy intensity on organic and conventional dairy farms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Melk, Storfe, Økologisk landbruk, Økonomi

This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, on-farm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ.

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Consumer Readiness to Reduce Meat Consumption for the Purpose of Environmental Sustainability: Insights from Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Planteproteiner, Samfunnsutvikling

Food production is associated with various environmental impacts and the production of meat is highlighted as a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. A transition toward plant-based and low-meat diets has thus been emphasised as an important contribution to reducing climate change. By combining results from a consumer survey, focus group interviews and an in-store field experiment, this article investigates whether Norwegian consumers are ready to make food choices based on what is environmentally sustainable.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects.

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Persistence in soil of Miscanthus biochar in laboratory and field conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biokull, Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord

Evaluating biochars for their persistence in soil under field conditions is an important step towards their implementation for carbon sequestration. Current evaluations might be biased because the vast majority of studies are short-term laboratory incubations of biochars produced in laboratory-scale pyrolyzers.

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Urban Agriculture: A Regenerative Urban Development Practice to Decrease the Ecological Footprints of Cities

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk, Urbant landbruk

Modern cities are characterized by intense human interactions and economic activities that- in many cases- have little or no consideration of the surrounding environment. Every day, the process of urbanisation is becoming more resource-intensive, and the results are grave, including, climate change, the loss of natural fertility of farmland and the loss of biodiversity all over the world.

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Agroforestry Standards for Regenerative Agriculture

Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices.


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Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of digestates from three green manures

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Gjødsel, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Green manure mixtures including legumes and forbs can help to increase N availability in organic arable systems. Anaerobic digestion of green manures may provide ammonium rich digestate, which can be redistributed as fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant species composition, cutting strategy and anaerobic digestion on the N fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of different green manures.

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A long-term field experiment demonstrates the influence of tillage on the bacterial potential to produce soil structure-stabilizing agents such as exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

Background
Stable soil aggregates are essential for optimal crop growth and preventing soil erosion. However, tillage is often used in agriculture to loosen the soil, which disrupts the integrity of these aggregates. Soil aggregation can be enhanced by bacteria through their ability to produce exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides. These compounds stabilize soil aggregates by “gluing” soil particles together.

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Abating N in Nordic agriculture – Policy, measures and way forward

During the past twenty years, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) have introduced a range of measures to reduce losses of nitrogen (N) to air and to aquatic environment by leaching and runoff. However, the agricultural sector is still an important N source to the environment, and projections indicate relatively small emission reductions in the coming years.

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Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økologisk landbruk

The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic Regulation. However, other factors, such as the production type, farm size, geographical location and—not the least—the management of the farm, also influence the contribution.

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Exploring hair cortisone concentration as a novel tool to assess chronic stress in sheep With tick-borne Fever

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Sau

Tick-borne fever (TBF), caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum and transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus, has considerable consequences for animal welfare and economy in the sheep industry. Non-invasive, objective methods to quantify chronic stress are needed in order to evaluate the welfare impact of disease.

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