Type Artikkel: Publisert studie

Forbs differentially affect soil microbial community composition and functions in unfertilized ryegrass-red clover leys

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Matjord, Næringsstoffer

Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems is proposed to enhance multiple ecosystem services. Adding selected forbs such as caraway (Carum carvi L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) to productive grass-clover mixtures can further enhance forage yields, root biomass, uptake of mineral nutrients and improve animal performance. Yet, it remains unclear whether and how adding these forbs to grass-clover mixtures can influence soil microbial communities and associated soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling.

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Red clover for silage: management impacts on herbage yield, nutritive value, ensilability and persistence, and relativity to perennial ryegrass

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

This 6‐year experiment quantified the impacts of management factors on red clover yield, persistence, nutritive value and ensilability, and compared these with perennial ryegrass receiving inorganic N fertilizer. Within a randomized complete block design, field plots were used to evaluate a 2 (cultivar, Merviot and Ruttinova) × 2 (alone and with perennial ryegrass) × 2 (0 and 50 kg fertilizer N ha−1 in mid‐March) × 2 (harvest schedule) combination of the factors relating to red clover, and a 2 (harvest schedule) × 4 (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 for each cut) combination of the factors relating to perennial ryegrass.

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Transitions to Agroecological Systems: Farmers’ Viewpoints

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Produksjonsmetoder, Samfunnsutvikling

We report a social science study of farmers’ experience of transition towards agroecological approaches in the UK with the aims to (i) identify motivations, challenges and opportunities encountered, together with the perceived benefits and disadvantages associated with the transition and (ii) gain an understanding of individuals’ trajectories in context, including social, economic, biophysical, cultural and psychological dimensions.

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Soil fertility after 10 years of conservation tillage in organic farming

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordpakking, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

It has become commonplace to consider ploughing as an agricultural practice that destroys soil fertility. Organic farmers have traditionally used the plough to till their soil and control weeds. However, there is a growing interest in adopting tillage practices without ploughing to preserve long-term soil fertility and in the hope, subsequently, of increasing crop yields. The aim of this paper is to assess if conservation tillage treatments in organic farming did in fact improve long-term soil fertility, wheat rooting and yield in a long term field experiment (2004–2015).

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A Gardener’s Influence on Urban Soil Quality

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Urbant landbruk

Gardens are hot spots for urban biodiversity and provide habitats for many plant and animal species, both above- and below-ground. Furthermore, gardens provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including carbon (C) storage and nutrient cycling. Although the soil is the foundation of sustainable gardens providing those ecosystem services, very little is known about the consequences of garden management on soil quality.

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Phosphorus bioavailability of sewage sludge-based recycled fertilizers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

Six phosphorus (P) fertilizers recycled from sewage sludge [Struvite SSL, Struvite AirPrex,P-RoC, Mephrec, Pyrolysis coal and Ash (Mg-SSA)] were tested for their plant availability in potted soil of pH 7.2 under greenhouse conditions. The crop sequence simulated a rotation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), maize (Zea maize L.), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

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Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

In this paper we present effects of four paired agricultural management practices (organic matter (OM) addition versus no organic matter input, no-tillage (NT) versus conventional tillage, crop rotation versus monoculture, and organic agriculture versus conventional agriculture) on five key soil quality indicators, i.e., soil organic matter (SOM) content, pH, aggregate stability, earthworms (numbers) and crop yield.

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Life cycle analysis of organic tomato production and supply in Sweden

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Tomat, Økologisk landbruk

Improving sustainability of organic tomato value chains requires increase of production and reduction of losses and related environmental burden. This paper presents the study conducted on organic tomato produced and consumed in Sweden. Using life cycle analysis (LCA) method with SimaPro8.2 LCA software, the cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP100) were investigated within the system boundary of cradle-to-consumer gate.

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Importance of cover crops in alleviating negative e ff ects of reduced soil tillage and promoting soil fertility in a winter wheat cropping system

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Korn, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

eduction of soil tillage is of paramount importance for agricultural soil preservation. However, it is often accompanied by yield reduction and weed management problems. In this perspective, cover crops could play an important role to alleviate weed infestation and sustain yield. In this study, the results from a three-year experiment of cover crop cultivation in different soil tillage treatments is presented, together with results from DayCent simulations on the long term evolution of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen.

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Towards an EU Regulatory Framework for Climate-Smart Agriculture: The Example of Soil Carbon Sequestration

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

This article assesses current and proposed European Union (EU) climate and environmental law, and the legal instruments associated with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), to see whether soil carbon sequestration is sufficiently promoted as a promising example of ‘climate-smart agriculture’. The assessment shows that current and proposed policies and instruments are inadequate to stimulate large-scale adoption of soil carbon projects across Europe.

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Waste products as alternative phosphorus fertilisers part I: inorganic P species affect fertilisation effects depending on soil pH

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

One of the bottlenecks to efficient phosphorus (P) recycling is limited understanding of the relationships between inorganic P species in waste products and their P fertilisation effects. In this study, we characterised inorganic P species in seven waste products (two biomass ashes, meat bone meal, fish sludge, catering waste and two food waste-based digestate products) and two manure products (dairy and chicken manure) by: (1) Sequential chemical fractionation, (2) X-ray powder diffraction and (3) solid-state 31P MAS-NMR spectroscopy.

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Impacts of organic matter amendments on carbon and nitrogen dynamics in grassland soils

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord

Organic matter amendments have been proposed as a means to enhance soil carbon (C) stocks on degraded soils. However, only few data exist on rates of soil C sequestration or the fate of added C in grassland soils, which are generally thought to have high C storage potential. We measured changes in the amount of C and nitrogen (N) in soils and in the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) following a single application of composted organic matter in two annual grasslands from different bioclimatic zones (coastal and inland valley).

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When too much isn’t enough: Does current food production meet global nutritional needs?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Sustainably feeding the next generation is often described as one of the most pressing “grand challenges” facing the 21st century. Generally, scholars propose addressing this problem by increasing agricultural production, investing in technology to boost yields, changing diets, or reducing food waste. In this paper, we explore whether global food production is nutritionally balanced by comparing the diet that nutritionists recommend versus global agricultural production statistics.

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Impact of projected climate change on workability, attainable yield, profitability and farm mechanization in Norwegian spring cereals

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Korn, Matjord

In cold-temperate climate with high soil water content in spring, the farmer often faces the choice between topsoil compaction during seedbed preparation and delayed sowing, both of which may reduce attainable cereal yield. The objective of this study was to explore whether future climate change with increasing precipitation would aggravate this dilemma.

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Faba Bean Cultivation – Revealing Novel Managing Practices for More Sustainable and Competitive European Cropping Systems

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Belgvekster, Klima og miljø, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder

Faba beans are highly nutritious because of their high protein content: they are a good source of mineral nutrients, vitamins, and numerous bioactive compounds. Equally important is the contribution of faba bean in maintaining the sustainability of agricultural systems, as it is highly efficient in the symbiotic fixation of atmospheric nitrogen. This article provides an overview of factors influencing faba bean yield and quality, and addresses the main biotic and abiotic constraints. It also reviews the factors relating to the availability of genetic material and the agronomic features of faba bean production that contribute to high yield and the improvement of European cropping systems.

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Food, farmers, and the future: Investigating prospects of increased food production within a national context

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Produksjonsmetoder, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

With international food price shocks in 2008 and 2011, food security became a political priority in many countries. In addition, some politicians have recently adopted a more nationalistic stance. Against that background, this paper critically investigates the prospects of increased food production within a national context. We use a small, high-income country, Norway, as an empirical case.

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Correlations between Polyacetylene Concentrations in Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Various Soil Parameters

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Grønnsaker, Gulrot

This study assessed the concentrations of three falcarinol-type polyacetylenes (falcarinol, falcarindiol, falcarindiol-3-acetate) in carrots and the correlations between these and different soil traits. A total of 144 carrot samples, from three different harvests taken a single season, were analysed in terms of their polyacetylene concentrations and root development.

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It’s Not Always about Growth! Development Dynamics and Management in Food Businesses and Chains

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

Growing small and medium-sized food enterprises (SMEs) face specific challenges, especially when they aim to maintain a higher quality of products and processes. While growing, they tend to converge either towards niche markets or mainstream commodity markets, and as a result sacrifice higher quality and value. In this article, we explore the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises and their related food supply chains, as well as the related challenges.

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Growth, feed intake, methane emissions and carbon footprint from Holstein bull calves fed four different rations

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Klima og miljø, Storfe

There is a growing interest in finding feeding strategies that can decrease greenhouse gas emissions from the livestock sector. The aim of the study was to compare productivity, enteric methane emissions and carbon footprint per kg edible product of dairy bull calves fed one of four different rations.

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Ecological Recycling Agriculture to Enhance Agro-Ecosystem Services in the Baltic Sea Region: Guidelines for Implementation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Eutrophication caused by agriculture is an increasing ecological threat to the Baltic Sea. Modern, resource-efficient farming systems based on integrated plant and animal production, effective nutrient recycling and low external inputs can enhance multiple agro-ecosystem services, resulting in reduced pollution. Practical examples of such farming systems are not widespread. Therefore, the Baltic Ecological Recycling Agriculture and Society (BERAS) Implementation project aimed to foster this systemic shift.

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Influences of Biodynamic and Conventional Farming Systems on Quality of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum L.) Crops: Results from Multivariate Analyses of Two Long-Term Field Trials in Sweden

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Potet, Produksjonsmetoder

The aim of this paper was to present results from two long term field experiments comparing potato samples from conventional farming systems with samples from biodynamic farming systems. The principal component analyses (PCA), consistently exhibited differences between potato samples from the two farming systems.

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Root traits and root biomass allocation impact how wheat genotypes respond to organic amendments and earthworms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Jordbiologi, Korn

Plant-soil biological interactions are increasingly recognized as a key feature of agroecosystems, promoting both crop and soil health. However, the effectiveness of plant-soil synergies is likely modulated by both root system characteristics and soil management impacts on soil biological communities.

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Spring frost risk for regional apple production under a warmer climate

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Eple, Frukt, Klima og miljø

Spring frosts, as experienced in Europe in April 2016 and 2017, pose a considerable risk to agricultural production, with the potential to cause significant damages to agricultural yields. Meteorological blocking events (stable high-pressure systems) have been shown to be one of the factors that trigger cold spells in spring. While current knowledge does not allow for drawing conclusions as to any change in future frequency and duration of blocking episodes due to climate change, the combination of their stable occurrence with the biological system under a warming trend can lead to economic damage increases.

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Evaluating lifetime nitrogen use efficiency of dairy cattle: A modelling approach

The increased nitrogen (N) use efficiency in cattle farming is proposed as a key action to improve N management and reduce the environmental impact of cattle farming systems. Most attention has been given to lactating cow nutrition, excluding the elements of fertility, disease, and the non-lactating animals within the herd. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to develop a herd-level simulation model incorporating these elements to assess dairy farm N use efficiency.

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Willingness to pay and moral stance: The case of farm animal welfare in Germany

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Dyrevelferd, Husdyr

This study examines the impact of ethical attitude on the willingness to pay for farm animal welfare improvement in Germany. Little is known about the pluralism of moral attitudes that may exist behind farm animal welfare issues and its relationship to customers' willingness to pay for it. Via a large survey (n = 1334) we are able to identify different moral dimensions by employing validated scales.

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Can living mulches in intercropping systems reduce the potential nitrate leaching? Studies of organic cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) and leek (Allium porrum L.) production across European conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matplanter, Næringsstoffer, Produksjonsmetoder

The effect of introduction strategy for living mulches (LMs) to reduce the potential nitrate leaching was investigated when grown with vegetables with high nitrogen (N) demand and low use efficiency in four European countries: Italy, Slovenia, Germany and Denmark over 2 yr. The plant N uptake and soil nitrate N content at harvest, in the autumn, and in the following spring were measured below open-pollinated and hybrid cultivars of cauliflower and leek crops.

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A comparative study of food values between the United States and Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

We compare the food values in the USA and Norway using the best–worst scaling approach. The food values examined are aimed at capturing the main issues related to food consumption such as naturalness, taste, price, safety, convenience, nutrition, novelty, origin, fairness, appearance, environmental impact and animal welfare.

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Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Organic farming systems need to replace nutrients exported via farm products, especially phosphorus (P) which may otherwise become depleted in soil in the long term. In Europe, EU regulations for organic production are shaping the farming systems with respect to inputs of nutrients. Permitted off-farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal.

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Phosphorus availability on many organically managed farms in Europe

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Næringsstoffer

Maintaining sufficient soil phosphorus (P) levels for non-limiting crop growth is challenging in organic systems since off-farm inputs of P are restricted. This study assessed the status of P on organic farms in Europe using soil test results for extractable P. Data was obtained from published literature, unpublished theses, and various national and regional databases of soil test values.

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Controlled traffic farming effects on soil emissions of nitrous oxide and methane

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Produksjonsmetoder

Soil compaction affects soil aeration and gas diffusivity, and thus has a major impact on the release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from fertilised soils. Controlled traffic farming (CTF) systems reduce the area of compacted soil by confining all field traffic to permanent traffic lanes, and a pilot trial at one long-term CTF site provided evidence of reduced soil emissions.

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Resilience of bacteria, archaea, fungi and N-cycling microbial guilds under plough and conservation tillage, to agricultural drought

Climate change causes droughts, which in turn cause significant physiological stress for soil microorganisms. In this study, we investigated how the abundance of total bacterial, crenarchaeal and fungal communities and the abundance of N-cycling microbial guilds responded to a severe agricultural drought event in a long-term experiment of minimum tillage (MT) and conventional ploughing (CT) at two soil depths.

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Active Packaging Applications for Food

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Emballasje, Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The traditional role of food packaging is continuing to evolve in response to changing market needs. Current drivers such as consumer's demand for safer, “healthier,” and higher‐quality foods, ideally with a long shelf‐life; the demand for convenient and transparent packaging, and the preference for more sustainable packaging materials, have led to the development of new packaging technologies, such as active packaging (AP).

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Fine-Tuning the Fight Against Food Waste

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

The complex causes of consumer food waste make it difficult for commercial actors and public policy makers to develop successful foodwaste reduction campaigns. One of the essential problems is that consumer food waste seems to be the unplanned result of divergent food-related behaviors. The current research investigates the relationship between distinctive consumer food-related lifestyle patterns and food waste.

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Soil carbon varies between different organic and conventional management schemes in arable agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Karbon og karbonlagring, Matjord

The effects of organic versus conventional farming systems on changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) has long been debated. The effects of such comparisons may depend considerably on the design of the respective systems and climate and soil conditions under which they are performed. Here, we compare a range of arable organic and conventional crop systems at three sites (Jyndevad, Foulum and Flakkebjerg) in Denmark through long-term experiments initiated in 1997.

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Crop traits drive soil carbon sequestration under organic farming

1. Organic farming (OF) enhances top soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in croplands compared with conventional farming (CF), which can contribute to sequester C. As farming system differences in the amount of C inputs to soil (e.g. fertilization and crop residues) are not enough to explain such increase, shifts in crop residue traits important for soil C losses such as litter decomposition may also play a role.

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Citizen and consumer evaluation of organic food and farming in Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Distribusjon og salg, Folkehelse

In this paper, we examine citizen and consumer attitudes towards, and preferences for, private and public goods from organic agriculture in Norway. The study is based on a survey among 939 Norwegians. The results show that in the role as citizens, the respondents hold a moderate belief in the superiority of organic farming concerning the production of public goods, but they give relatively low priority to prompting organic farming compared to other agricultural policy goals.

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Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees

Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review.

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Økologisk landbruk

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low
pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing
yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects. Here, we review risks and opportunities related to a broad range of sustainability domains associated with increasing yields in organic agriculture in the Northern European context.

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Reducing food’s environmental impacts through producers and consumers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

Food’s environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities.

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Impact of agronomy practices on the effects of reduced tillage systems on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields: A global meta-analysis

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

The effect of no- and reduced tillage (NT/RT) on greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was highly variable and may depend on other agronomy practices. However, how the other practices affect the effect of NT/RT on GHG emission remains elusive. Therefore, we conducted a global meta-analysis (including 49 papers with 196 comparisons) to assess the effect of five options (i.e. cropping system, crop residue management, split application of N fertilizer, irrigation, and tillage duration) on the effect of NT/RT on CH4 and N2O emissions from agricultural fields.

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Targeting critical source areas for phosphorus losses: Evaluation with soil testing, farmers’ assessment and modelling

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Klima og miljø, Næringsstoffer

Diffuse phosphorus (P) losses from arable land need to be reduced in a cost-efficient way, taking into account their temporal and spatial variability. This study, based on 16 farms across southern Sweden, examined possibilities for identifying critical source areas for P losses based on the combined results of high-resolution erosion modelling, independent risk assessments by farmers, soil survey and SWOT analysis performed by farmers.

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Crop management affects pollinator attractiveness and visitation in oilseed rape

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Ecological intensification of agriculture implies managing ecological processes to improve performance of agricultural systems. However, impacts on relevant ecological functions such as insect pollination from other crop management factors are poorly explored. Pest insects and crop resources such as water availability can directly affect crop yields, but it is unknown if there are indirect effects through effects on insect pollination.

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Wild Pollinators Enhance Fruit Set of Crops Regardless of Honey Bee Abundance

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

The diversity and abundance of wild insect pollinators have declined in many agricultural landscapes. Whether such declines reduce crop yields, or are mitigated by managed pollinators such as honey bees, is unclear. We found universally positive associations of fruit set with flower visitation by wild insects in 41 crop systems worldwide. In contrast, fruit set increased significantly with flower visitation by honey bees in only 14% of the systems surveyed.

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Mutually beneficial pollinator diversity and crop yield outcomes in small and large farms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Insekter, Pollinerende insekter

Ecological intensification, or the improvement of crop yield through enhancement of biodiversity, may be a sustainable pathway toward greater food supplies. Such sustainable increases may be especially important for the 2 billion people reliant on small farms, many of which are undernourished, yet we know little about the efficacy of this approach.

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