Type Artikkel: Publisert studie

Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture

The 13th edition of the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture includes 14 articles of EUROLEGUME's scientific research in its 'In Focus' section.
In addition to the 14 articles, the 'In Focus' starts off with an editorial on 'Enhancing legume growing through sustainable cropping for protein supply' and a review on 'Cowpea: a legume crop for a challenging environment'.

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Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

Diets link environmental and human health. Rising incomes and urbanization are driving a global dietary transition in which traditional diets are replaced by diets higher in refined sugars, refined fats, oils and meats. By 2050 these dietary trends, if unchecked, would be a major contributor to an estimated 80 per cent increase in global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions from food production and to global land clearing.

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Proximal Soil Sensing – A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord

Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS) provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils.


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Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord

The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop.

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Manure and tillage use in remediation of eroded land and impacts on soil chemical properties

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Belgvekster, Erosjon, Gjødsel, Humus, Kompost, Matjord

Soil loss through wind and water erosion is an ongoing problem in semiarid regions. A thin layer of top soil loss over a hectare of cropland could be corresponding to tons of productive soil loss per hectare. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of beef feedlot manure, tillage and legume grass mixtures on changes in soil quality and nutrient components. The study was initiated in 2006 on an eroded site near Akron, Colorado, on a Norka-Colby very-fine sandy loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, Aridic, Argiustolls).

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Redistributing Phosphorus in Animal Manure from a Livestock-Intensive Region to an Arable Region: Exploration of Environmental Consequences

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Erosjon, Gjødsel, Matjord

Specialized agricultural production between regions has led to large regional differences in soil phosphorus (P) over time. Redistribution of surplus manure P from high livestock density regions to regions with arable farming can improve agricultural P use efficiency. In this paper, the central research question was whether more efficient P use through manure P redistribution comes at a price of increased environmental impacts when compared to a reference system.

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Food waste in the Finnish food chain

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Matsvinn

Around 130 million kilograms of food waste is generated each year (23 kg per capita/year) from the household sector.
Annually discarded food from Finnish households is approximately equal to the annual carbon dioxide emissions of 100,000 cars.
At the national level Finnish households discard food of value €400–550 million annually.
Altogether, households, restaurants, food industry and retails produce 335–460 million kilograms of food waste in Finland per year.
The total climate impact of food waste was approximately 1000 million kilograms of CO2-equivalent per year.

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Organic and Biodynamic Management Effects on Soil Biology

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Gjødsel, Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord

Biodynamic agriculture is a unique organic farming system that utilizes, in addition to the common tools of organic agriculture, specific fermented herbal preparations as compost additives and field sprays. The objective of this work was to determine whether biodynamic compost or field spray preparations affect the soil biological community in the short term, beyond the effects of organic management.

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Molecular properties of a fermented manure preparation used as field spray in biodynamic agriculture

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Gjødsel, Matjord

Manure products fermented underground in cow horns and commonly used as field spray (prepara- tion 500) in the biodynamic farming system, were char- acterized for molecular composition by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance [13 C cross-polarization magic-angle-spinning NMR (13 C-CPMAS-NMR)] spec- troscopy and offline tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrome- try.

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Fruit and Soil Quality of Organic and Conventional Strawberry Agroecosystems

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Grønnsaker, Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Matplanter

Our findings show that the organic strawberry farms produced higher quality fruit and that their higher quality soils may have greater microbial functional capability and resilience to stress. These findings justify additional investigations aimed at detecting and quantifying such effects and their interactions.

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Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Grapevines under Organic and Biodynamic Management

The main objective of this study was to determine growth, yield and fruit quality of grapevines under organic and biodynamic management in relation to integrated viticultural practices. Furthermore, the mechanisms for the observed changes in growth, yield and fruit quality were investigated by determining nutrient status, physiological performance of the plants and disease incidence on bunches in three consecutive growing seasons.

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Biodynamic preparations: Short-term effects on crops, soils, and weed populations

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Gjødsel, Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord

Biodynamic agriculture is an organic farming system that utilizes fermented herbal and mineral preparations as compost additives and field sprays. This study was conducted to determine whether biodynamic preparations affect lentil and wheat growth and yield, soil fertility, or weed populations in the short run.

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Effects of traditional and biodynamic farmyard manure amendment on yields, soil chemical, biochemical and biological properties in a long-term field experiment

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biodynamisk, Gjødsel, Humus, Husdyr, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Storfe

We studied the effects of applications of traditionally composted farmyard manure (FYM) and two types of biodynamically composted FYM over 9 years on soil chemical properties, microbial biomass and respiration, dehydrogenase and saccharase activities, decomposition rates and root production under grass-clover, activity and biomass of earthworms under wheat, and yields in a grass-clover, potatoes, winter wheat, field beans, spring wheat, winter rye crop rotation.

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Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Belgvekster, Karbonlagring, Matjord, Matplanter, Nitrogenfiksering

Humans are currently confronted by many global challenges. These include achieving food security for a rapidly expanding population, lowering the risk of climate change by reducing the net release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere due to human activity, and meeting the increasing demand for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. Legumes deliver several important services to societies. They provide important sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen (N) to agro-ecosystems via their unique ability to fix atmospheric N2 in symbiosis with the soil bacteria rhizobia, increasing soil carbon content, and stimulating the productivity of the crops that follow. However, the role of legumes has rarely been considered in the context of their potential to contribute to the mitigation of climate change by reducing fossil fuel use or by providing feedstock for the emerging biobased economies where fossil sources of energy and industrial raw materials are replaced in part by sustainable and renewable biomass resources.

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Fosforkretsløp i Montreals mat- og urbant landbrukssystem

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder, Urbant landbruk

Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities’ P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste.

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Økologisk og biodynamisk produksjon – effekter på jordbiologi

Organically and biodynamically managed soils had similar microbial status and were more biotically active than soils that did not receive organic fertilization. Organic management enhanced soil biological activity, but additional use of the biodynamic preparations did not significantly affect the soil biotic parameters tested.

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Økologisk dyrket mark og biodiversitet

Controlling for the effects of local and landscape structure, we showed that OF leads to higher local weed diversity and that the presence of OF in the landscape is associated with higher local weed biodiversity also for conventionally farmed fields, and may reach a similar biodiversity level to organic fields in field margins. Based on these results, we derive indications for improving the sustainable management of farming systems.

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Karbonlagring i jordaggregater under forskjellige vekstskifter og nitrogengjødsling i en inceptisol (brunjord) i det sørøstlige Norge

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Karbonlagring, Matjord, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder

Effekter av vekstskifte og gjødsling (nitrogen og husdyrgjødsel) på konsentrasjoner av organisk karbon og total jordnitrogen i jordaggregater ble undersøkt i et langvarig felteksperiment etablert i 1953 på Ås, Norge . Effekten av disse dyrkingssystemene på karbonbinding av organisk karbon ble estimert.

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Bevis for synkende mineraltetthet i hvetekorn i løpet av de siste 160 år

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Korn, Matjord, Matplanter, Produksjonsmetoder

Hvete er en viktig kilde til mineraler som jern, sink, kobber og magnesium i dietten i UK. Inntaket av disse næringsstoffene har sunket de siste årene på grunn av en kombinasjon av redusert energibehov knyttet til stillesittende livsstil og endringer i kostholdet forbundet med lavere mikronæringstetthet i kosten.

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Håndtering av karbon i jordsmonnet for klimatiltak og tilpasning i dyrkingssystemer ved Middelhavet: En meta-analyse

Mediterranean croplands are seasonally dry agroecosystems with low soil organic carbon (SOC) content and high risk of land degradation and desertification. The increase in SOC is of special interest in these systems, as it can help to build resilience for climate change adaptation while contributing to mitigate global warming through the sequestration of atmospheric carbon (C).

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