Type Artikkel: Publisert studie

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from integrated organic farming: A systems approach considering rotation cycles

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Produksjonsmetoder, Økologisk landbruk

Integrated organic farming could help reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and other environmental impacts from agriculture but studies of such practices are scarce, particularly those considering farms as whole systems and taking into account rotation cycles. To address this knowledge gap, this study considers life cycle GHG emissions and the related global warming potential (GWP) of a large integrated organic farm in the UK.

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Perennial flower strips for pest control in organic apple orchards – A pan-European study

In many crops, the intensive use of pesticides causes major problems both for the environment and for natural ecosystem services. Apple is Europe's most frequently produced orchard fruit, requiring high pesticide input to combat the most important apple insect pests, Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini) and Cydia pomonella (L.).

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Design, implementation and management of perennial flower strips to promote functional agrobiodiversity in organic apple orchards: A pan-European study

Orchards, as intensive cropping systems, often have low diversity of plant species, which limits the promotion of natural enemies for pest control. The implementation of agri-environmental schemes, such as flower strips, could enhance biological control. We developed perennial, multifunctional flower strips with native plant species.

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Validation of body temperature and heart rate sensors in domestic sheep

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Presisjonsjordbruk, Sau

The advantages of low input livestock production on large or unfenced pastures, including high animal welfare, positive impacts on biodiversity and low production costs may be challenged by losses due to undetected disease, accidents and predation. Precision livestock farming (PLF) systems enable remote monitoring on an individual level with the potential for predictive warning. Monitoring body temperature (Tb) and heart rate (HR) could allow for development of early warning systems for not only sickness and behavior, but also oestrus or parturition.

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Effects of three short-term pasture allocation methods on milk production, methane emission and grazing behaviour by dairy cows

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Storfe

Two short-term grazing experiments were conducted with Norwegian Red cows. In Exp 1, 24 cows were randomly assigned to one of the following three pasture allocation methods (PAM): weekly pasture allowance (7RG), grazing 1/7 of 7RG each day (1SG), or grazing as 1SG but had access to grazed part of the paddock within one week (1FG).

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A regional approach to Nordic crop wild relative in situ conservation planning

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Biologisk mangfold, Genetikk

Crop wild relatives (CWR) can provide one solution to future challenges on food security, sustainable agriculture and adaptation to climate change. Diversity found in CWR can be essential for adapting crops to these new demands. Since the need to improve in situ conservation of CWR has been recognized by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) (2010) and the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (2011–2020), it is important to develop ways to safeguard these important genetic resources.

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Links between profitability, nitrogen surplus, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy intensity on organic and conventional dairy farms

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Melk, Storfe, Økologisk landbruk, Økonomi

This study examines the relationships between profitability, nitrogen (N) surplus, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), and energy intensity and factors influencing these relationships in dairy farming. In-depth data from 10 conventional and 8 organic dairy farms in Western Norway were analyzed. Organic farms had lower N surplus per hectare (local, on-farm) and per unit output (global, cradle-to-farm-gate), and lower estimated GHG emissions and energy intensity per unit output, whereas labor input and farm profits did not differ.

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Consumer Readiness to Reduce Meat Consumption for the Purpose of Environmental Sustainability: Insights from Norway

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Planteproteiner, Samfunnsutvikling

Food production is associated with various environmental impacts and the production of meat is highlighted as a significant source of greenhouse gas emissions. A transition toward plant-based and low-meat diets has thus been emphasised as an important contribution to reducing climate change. By combining results from a consumer survey, focus group interviews and an in-store field experiment, this article investigates whether Norwegian consumers are ready to make food choices based on what is environmentally sustainable.

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Risks and opportunities of increasing yields in organic farming. A review

Current organic agriculture performs well in several sustainability domains, like animal welfare, farm profitability and low pesticide use, but yields are commonly lower than in conventional farming. There is now a re-vitalized interest in increasing yields in organic agriculture to provide more organic food for a growing, more affluent population and reduce negative impacts per unit produced. However, past yield increases have been accompanied by several negative side-effects.

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Persistence in soil of Miscanthus biochar in laboratory and field conditions

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Karbon og karbonlagring, Klima og miljø, Matjord

Evaluating biochars for their persistence in soil under field conditions is an important step towards their implementation for carbon sequestration. Current evaluations might be biased because the vast majority of studies are short-term laboratory incubations of biochars produced in laboratory-scale pyrolyzers.

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Urban Agriculture: A Regenerative Urban Development Practice to Decrease the Ecological Footprints of Cities

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Regenerativt landbruk, Urbant landbruk

Modern cities are characterized by intense human interactions and economic activities that- in many cases- have little or no consideration of the surrounding environment. Every day, the process of urbanisation is becoming more resource-intensive, and the results are grave, including, climate change, the loss of natural fertility of farmland and the loss of biodiversity all over the world.

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Agroforestry Standards for Regenerative Agriculture

Agroforestry is increasingly being recognized as a holistic food production system that can have numerous significant environmental, economic, and social benefits. This growing recognition is paralleled in the USA by the budding interest in regenerative agriculture and motivation to certify regenerative practices.


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Nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of digestates from three green manures

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fôr, Gjødsel, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer

Green manure mixtures including legumes and forbs can help to increase N availability in organic arable systems. Anaerobic digestion of green manures may provide ammonium rich digestate, which can be redistributed as fertilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant species composition, cutting strategy and anaerobic digestion on the N fertilizer replacement value (NFRV) of different green manures.

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A long-term field experiment demonstrates the influence of tillage on the bacterial potential to produce soil structure-stabilizing agents such as exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordbiologi, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

Background
Stable soil aggregates are essential for optimal crop growth and preventing soil erosion. However, tillage is often used in agriculture to loosen the soil, which disrupts the integrity of these aggregates. Soil aggregation can be enhanced by bacteria through their ability to produce exopolysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides. These compounds stabilize soil aggregates by “gluing” soil particles together.

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Abating N in Nordic agriculture – Policy, measures and way forward

During the past twenty years, the Nordic countries (Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway) have introduced a range of measures to reduce losses of nitrogen (N) to air and to aquatic environment by leaching and runoff. However, the agricultural sector is still an important N source to the environment, and projections indicate relatively small emission reductions in the coming years.

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Contribution of organic farming to public goods in Denmark

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Økologisk landbruk

The potential contribution of organic farming to the public goods, ‘Nature and Biodiversity’, ‘Environment’, ‘Energy and Climate’, ‘Human Health and Welfare’ and ‘Animal Health and Welfare’ in Denmark is guided and partly secured by the principles and specific requirements of the EU Organic Regulation. However, other factors, such as the production type, farm size, geographical location and—not the least—the management of the farm, also influence the contribution.

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Exploring hair cortisone concentration as a novel tool to assess chronic stress in sheep With tick-borne Fever

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Husdyr, Sau

Tick-borne fever (TBF), caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum and transmitted by the tick Ixodes ricinus, has considerable consequences for animal welfare and economy in the sheep industry. Non-invasive, objective methods to quantify chronic stress are needed in order to evaluate the welfare impact of disease.

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Farm Animal Cognition—Linking Behavior, Welfare and Ethics

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Dyrevelferd, Gris, Husdyr, Storfe

Farm animal welfare is a major concern for society and food production. To more accurately evaluate animal farming in general and to avoid exposing farm animals to poor welfare situations, it is necessary to understand not only their behavioral but also their cognitive needs and capacities. Thus, general knowledge of how farm animals perceive and interact with their environment is of major importance for a range of stakeholders, from citizens to politicians to cognitive ethologists to philosophers.

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A-7/18 Farmland conversion to fight climate change? Resource hierarchies, discursive power and ulterior motives in land use politics

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling

In December 2013, local politicians celebrated with a champagne toast as the municipality of Trondheim received permission from the Ministry of Local Government and Modernisation to develop 110 ha (272 acres) of high quality farmland for housing and business. The primary reason for this decision was the promotion of a more climate-friendly city.

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Soil quality – A critical review

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord

Sampling and analysis or visual examination of soil to assess its status and use potential is widely practiced from plot to national scales. However, the choice of relevant soil attributes and interpretation of measurements are not straightforward, because of the complexity and site-specificity of soils, legacy effects of previous land use, and trade-offs between ecosystem services. Here we review soil quality and related concepts, in terms of definition, assessment approaches, and indicator selection and interpretation.

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Sustenance and sustainability: maximizing the impact of school gardens on health outcomes

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Grønnsaker, Skolehager

Objective
School garden programmes have become popular action-oriented learning environments in many countries, often driven by converging priorities of environmental sustainability and healthful diets. Many of these programmes have assessed the impact on dietary intake, specifically fruit and vegetable intake, and related dietary behaviours, such as knowledge, preference, motivation, intention and self-efficacy to eat and prepare fruit and vegetables. The objective of the present study was twofold: (i) to review published garden-based programmes conducted in schools targeting dietary intake and/or determinants of dietary behaviour in children; and (ii) to identify similar strategies and components employed by these garden-based programmes.


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Examining multi-functionality for crop yield and ecosystem services in five systems of agroecological intensification

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Presisjonsjordbruk, Økologisk landbruk

Agroecological intensification (AEI) integrates ecological principles and biodiversity management into farming systems with the aims of increasing farm productivity, reducing dependency on external inputs, and sustaining or enhancing ecosystem services. This review develops an analytic framework to characterize the fulfilment of these objectives by documenting the co-occurrence of positive, neutral, and negative outcomes for crop yield and nine regulating ecosystem services.

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Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture's environmental impacts.

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Options for keeping the food system within environmental limits

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling

The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50–90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity.

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Food systems for sustainable development: proposals for a profound four-part transformation

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Samfunnsutvikling, Økonomi

Evidence shows the importance of food systems for sustainable development: they are at the nexus that links food security, nutrition, and human health, the viability of ecosystems, climate change, and social justice. However, agricultural policies tend to focus on food supply, and sometimes, on mechanisms to address negative externalities. We propose an alternative.

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Sustainable intensification of agriculture for human prosperity and global sustainability

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

There is an ongoing debate on what constitutes sustainable intensification of agriculture (SIA). In this paper, we propose that a paradigm for sustainable intensification can be defined and translated into an operational framework for agricultural development. We argue that this paradigm must now be defined—at all scales—in the context of rapidly rising global environmental changes in the Anthropocene, while focusing on eradicating poverty and hunger and contributing to human wellbeing.

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Agricultural ecosystems and their services: the vanguard of sustainability?

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø

Sustainable Development Goals offer an opportunity to improve human well-being while conserving natural resources. Ecosystem services highlight human well-being benefits ecosystems, including agricultural ecosystems, provides. Whereas agricultural systems produce the majority of our food, they drive significant environmental degradation. This tension between development and environmental conservation objectives is not an immutable outcome as agricultural systems are simultaneously dependents, and providers of ecosystem services.

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Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Planteproteiner

Importance
Defining what represents a macronutritionally balanced diet remains an open question and a high priority in nutrition research. Although the amount of protein may have specific effects, from a broader dietary perspective, the choice of protein sources will inevitably influence other components of diet and may be a critical determinant for the health outcome.

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Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Klima og miljø

What we eat greatly influences our personal health and the environment we all share. Recent analyses have highlighted the likely dual health and environmental benefits of reducing the fraction of animal-sourced foods in our diets. Here, we couple for the first time, to our knowledge, a region-specific global health model based on dietary and weight-related risk factors with emissions accounting and economic valuation modules to quantify the linked health and environmental consequences of dietary changes.

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Food in the Anthropocene: the EAT– Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems

Food systems have the potential to nurture human health and support environmental sustainability; however, they are currently threatening both. Providing a growing global population with healthy diets from sustainable food systems is an immediate challenge. Although global food production of calories has kept pace with population growth, more than 820 million people have insufficient food and many more consume low-quality diets that cause micronutrient deficiencies and contribute to a substantial rise in the incidence of diet-related obesity and diet-related non-communicable diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

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Association of Frequency of Organic Food Consumption With Cancer RiskFindings From the NutriNet-Santé Prospective Cohort Study

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Folkehelse, Økologisk landbruk

Importance
Although organic foods are less likely to contain pesticide residues than conventional foods, few studies have examined the association of organic food consumption with cancer risk.

Objective
To prospectively investigate the association between organic food consumption and the risk of cancer in a large cohort of French adults.


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Simulating soil fertility management effects on crop yield and soil nitrogen dynamics in field trials under organic farming in Europe

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Matjord, Næringsstoffer, Økologisk landbruk

Soil fertility building measures should be explored at the short and long-term for an adequate evaluation of their impact on sustaining yields and of its environmental consequences in crop rotations under organic farming. For such a purpose, process-based crop models are potential useful tools to complement and upscale field observations under a range of soil and climatic conditions.

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The Challenges of Governing Urban Food Production across Four European City-Regions: Identity, Sustainability and Governance

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Samfunnsutvikling, Urbant landbruk, Økonomi

The development of food production in cities has raised some important questions about the governance of these activities and the role of city-regions. In this paper through four European case studies– Bristol (UK), Ghent (Belgium), Vigo (Spain), and Zurich (Switzerland) –we consider the ways in which food is governed at the city level. Our case studies demonstrate the role played by citizens in urban food and the challenges this brings to city-region governance.

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Improving Crop Yield and Nutrient Use Efficiency via Biofertilization – A Global Meta-analysis

The application of microbial inoculants (biofertilizers) is a promising technology for future sustainable farming systems in view of rapidly decreasing phosphorus stocks and the need to more efficiently use available nitrogen (N). Various microbial taxa are currently used as biofertilizers, based on their capacity to access nutrients from fertilizers and soil stocks, to fix atmospheric nitrogen, to improve water uptake or to act as biocontrol agents.

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Knowledge and precaution. On organic farmers’ assessment of new technology

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Økologisk landbruk

Organic farming is under constant pressure to reinvent itself by adopting new technologies. This article examines the role of precaution in organic farmers’ assessments of new technologies, and asks how their assessments draw on different types of knowledge. The article further explores how knowledge type compares to the role of knowledge and precaution expressed in the principles of organic farming as defined by the organic movement organisation, IFOAM.

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Comparison of the environmental performance of different treatment scenarios for the main phosphorus recycling sources

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Klima og miljø, Næringsstoffer

Efficient phosphorus (P) recycling from rural and urban areas is becoming an increasing issue due to the scarcity of natural P deposits. Based on a life cycle assessment (LCA), we analyzed the environmental performance of 17 different P supply and recycling approaches from urban wastes, biosolids and slaughterhouse wastes compared with the two conventional inorganic fertilizers phosphate rock and triple superphosphate.

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Nitrogen leaching: a crop rotation perspective on the effect of N surplus, field management and use of catch crops

Components of the field nitrogen (N) balance (input and surplus) are often used to predict nitrate leaching from agricultural lands. However, management factors, such as use of catch crops, greatly affect the actual loss and are a key to reduce N leaching. The present study is based on the 4th cycle of a long-term crop rotation experiment in Denmark, and it aims to quantify, from a crop rotation perspective, the influence on N leaching from N input and surplus or management factors.

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Forbs differentially affect soil microbial community composition and functions in unfertilized ryegrass-red clover leys

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Matjord, Næringsstoffer

Increasing plant diversity in agroecosystems is proposed to enhance multiple ecosystem services. Adding selected forbs such as caraway (Carum carvi L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) to productive grass-clover mixtures can further enhance forage yields, root biomass, uptake of mineral nutrients and improve animal performance. Yet, it remains unclear whether and how adding these forbs to grass-clover mixtures can influence soil microbial communities and associated soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling.

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Red clover for silage: management impacts on herbage yield, nutritive value, ensilability and persistence, and relativity to perennial ryegrass

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

This 6‐year experiment quantified the impacts of management factors on red clover yield, persistence, nutritive value and ensilability, and compared these with perennial ryegrass receiving inorganic N fertilizer. Within a randomized complete block design, field plots were used to evaluate a 2 (cultivar, Merviot and Ruttinova) × 2 (alone and with perennial ryegrass) × 2 (0 and 50 kg fertilizer N ha−1 in mid‐March) × 2 (harvest schedule) combination of the factors relating to red clover, and a 2 (harvest schedule) × 4 (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 for each cut) combination of the factors relating to perennial ryegrass.

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Transitions to Agroecological Systems: Farmers’ Viewpoints

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Agroøkologi, Produksjonsmetoder, Samfunnsutvikling

We report a social science study of farmers’ experience of transition towards agroecological approaches in the UK with the aims to (i) identify motivations, challenges and opportunities encountered, together with the perceived benefits and disadvantages associated with the transition and (ii) gain an understanding of individuals’ trajectories in context, including social, economic, biophysical, cultural and psychological dimensions.

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Soil fertility after 10 years of conservation tillage in organic farming

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Humus, Jordpakking, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

It has become commonplace to consider ploughing as an agricultural practice that destroys soil fertility. Organic farmers have traditionally used the plough to till their soil and control weeds. However, there is a growing interest in adopting tillage practices without ploughing to preserve long-term soil fertility and in the hope, subsequently, of increasing crop yields. The aim of this paper is to assess if conservation tillage treatments in organic farming did in fact improve long-term soil fertility, wheat rooting and yield in a long term field experiment (2004–2015).

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A Gardener’s Influence on Urban Soil Quality

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Urbant landbruk

Gardens are hot spots for urban biodiversity and provide habitats for many plant and animal species, both above- and below-ground. Furthermore, gardens provide a wide range of ecosystem services, including carbon (C) storage and nutrient cycling. Although the soil is the foundation of sustainable gardens providing those ecosystem services, very little is known about the consequences of garden management on soil quality.

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Phosphorus bioavailability of sewage sludge-based recycled fertilizers

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Fosfor, Gjødsel, Næringsstoffer

Six phosphorus (P) fertilizers recycled from sewage sludge [Struvite SSL, Struvite AirPrex,P-RoC, Mephrec, Pyrolysis coal and Ash (Mg-SSA)] were tested for their plant availability in potted soil of pH 7.2 under greenhouse conditions. The crop sequence simulated a rotation of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), maize (Zea maize L.), and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).

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Effects of agricultural management practices on soil quality: A review of long-term experiments for Europe and China

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

In this paper we present effects of four paired agricultural management practices (organic matter (OM) addition versus no organic matter input, no-tillage (NT) versus conventional tillage, crop rotation versus monoculture, and organic agriculture versus conventional agriculture) on five key soil quality indicators, i.e., soil organic matter (SOM) content, pH, aggregate stability, earthworms (numbers) and crop yield.

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Life cycle analysis of organic tomato production and supply in Sweden

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Klima og miljø, Tomat, Økologisk landbruk

Improving sustainability of organic tomato value chains requires increase of production and reduction of losses and related environmental burden. This paper presents the study conducted on organic tomato produced and consumed in Sweden. Using life cycle analysis (LCA) method with SimaPro8.2 LCA software, the cumulative energy demand (CED) and global warming potential (GWP100) were investigated within the system boundary of cradle-to-consumer gate.

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Importance of cover crops in alleviating negative e ff ects of reduced soil tillage and promoting soil fertility in a winter wheat cropping system

| Type artikkel: Publisert studie

Kategori: Korn, Matjord, Produksjonsmetoder

eduction of soil tillage is of paramount importance for agricultural soil preservation. However, it is often accompanied by yield reduction and weed management problems. In this perspective, cover crops could play an important role to alleviate weed infestation and sustain yield. In this study, the results from a three-year experiment of cover crop cultivation in different soil tillage treatments is presented, together with results from DayCent simulations on the long term evolution of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen.

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