Stikkord: karbondioksid

Legumes for mitigation of climate change and the provision of feedstock for biofuels and biorefineries. A review

Humans are currently confronted by many global challenges. These include achieving food security for a rapidly expanding population, lowering the risk of climate change by reducing the net release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere due to human activity, and meeting the increasing demand for energy in the face of dwindling reserves of fossil energy and uncertainties about future reliability of supply. Legumes deliver several important services to societies. They provide important sources of oil, fiber, and protein-rich food and feed while supplying nitrogen (N) to agro-ecosystems via their unique ability to fix atmospheric N2 in symbiosis with the soil bacteria rhizobia, increasing soil carbon content, and stimulating the productivity of the crops that follow. However, the role of legumes has rarely been considered in the context of their potential to contribute to the mitigation of climate change by reducing fossil fuel use or by providing feedstock for the emerging biobased economies where fossil sources of energy and industrial raw materials are replaced in part by sustainable and renewable biomass resources.

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The genetic improvement of forage grasses and legumes to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

| Type artikkel: Rapport

Kategori: Belgvekster, Grønnsaker, Karbon og karbonlagring, Matjord, Matplanter

Grasslands are one of the most important ecosystems and forms of land use in the world. They are crucial for food production and deliver ecosystem services. However, particularly when used for livestock production, they are also a significant source of pollution including the greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Energy inputs into grassland agriculture, particularly fertilisers, also contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. A considerable amount of research has focused on emissions from grasslands: how to measure them and management strategies for mitigation. Similarly, there have been a number of studies on the role of grasslands in terms of carbon sequestration. However, less work has been carried out exploring ways in which genetic improvement of grassland crops can reduce emissions and enhance carbon sequestration. Plant breeding has been successful at increasing the yield, persistency and stress tolerance of the major grasses and legumes of many grasslands in the world. These same approaches have considerable potential in altering plant traits to enhance the ecological efficiency of grassland agriculture.

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Klimagassutslipp fra svensk melkeproduksjon

| Type artikkel: Doktorgradsavhandling

Kategori: Husdyr, Klima og miljø, Melk, Storfe

Av världens totala växthusgasutsläpp orsakade av mänsklig påverkan står matproduktionen uppskattningsvis för 19-29 % och enbart mjölkproduktionen för ca 3 %. Den här avhandlingen har studerat mjölkens klimatpåverkan i ett livscykelperspektiv (även kallat mjölkens «carbon footprint» (CF)) med metoden för livscykelanalys (LCA) och systemavgränsningen «vagga till gårdsgrind».

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Økologisk versus konvensjonell grovfôrproduksjon: Nitrogen- og karbonprøver fra grovfôr og jord

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Kategori: Fôr, Karbon og karbonlagring, Matjord, Matplanter, Nitrogen og nitrogenfiksering, Næringsstoffer, Produksjonsmetoder

Å skille økologiske og konvensjonelle produkter fra hverandre er en stor problemstilling innen matsikkerhet og matautentisitet. Tidligere studier har bruket stabile isotoper for å skille økologiske og konvensjonelle produkter, men frem til nå, har ikke denne tilnærmingen blitt testet på økologisk grovfôr og jord.

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Mikrobiell respons i jord med økt karbondioksid og ozon

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Kategori: Matjord

Climate change factors such as elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3) can exert significant impacts on soil microbes and the ecosystem level processes they mediate. However, the underlying mechanisms by which soil microbes respond to these environmental changes remain poorly understood. Using a long-term field study conducted in a no-till wheat-soybean rotation system with open-top chambers, we showed that elevated CO2 but not O3 had a potent influence on soil microbes.

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